Tag Archives: Yorkshire Terrier

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

Lymphangiectasia

This is a serious condition of the small intestine which results in a protein-losing enteropathy. Although rare in the dog it is said to be seen more commonly in Yorkshire Terriers () and as a hereditary disease in the Norwegian Lundehunds (). The aetiology is not known although a congenital (primary) or acquired (secondary) obstruction to the intestinal lymphatic drainage is implicated. Secondary cases may include right-sided heart failure, constrictive pericarditis, neoplastic or inflammatory obstructions to the lymphatics or granuloma formation of mesentric lymph nodes (). Most cases are frequently found to be secondary to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (). Gross dilation of the lacteals and deeper lymph vessels occurs and there is said to be reduced immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and consequently more chance of secondary infection occurring (). Chyle leaks out of the dilated lacteals leading to a serious loss of plasma protein and thus hypoproteinaemia (). Clinical diagnosis The main symptoms observed are chronic diarrhoea associated with weight-loss and frequently subcutaneous oedema, ascites and hydrothorax due to hypoproteinaemia. The appetite may initially be intact but as the condition advances anorexia Read more […]

Disorders of the Puerperium

1) What does a normal bitch look like in the days following whelping? When should I worry that something’s wrong? Normal bitches pass an odorless, reddish brown to green vulvar discharge for up to 3 weeks after whelping. Body temperature may be slightly elevated for a couple of days but never should be above 102.5° F. The mammary glands should be full but not painful. It is normal to see milk expressed from several openings at the end of every nipple. Abnormalities include creamy, malodorous vulvar discharge; one or more swollen and painful mammary glands; decreased appetite and thirst; disorientation; and neglect of the pups. 2) My bitch finished whelping in the “wee hours” of the morning. Does she need to go into the veterinarian for a “cleanout” shot? Not if she has live pups that are nursing. The nursing pups stimulate frequent release of small amounts of oxytocin, which causes milk letdown and uterine contractions. This is better for the bitch than our giving her one big shot of oxytocin. The puerperal period is that time from whelping to complete involution and repair of the uterus. This period usually lasts about 12 weeks. By the end of the puerperal period, the pups are weaned, the uterus Read more […]

Pregnancy

Physiology and Endocrinology The eggs released by the bitch are fertilized in the uterine tubes and move into the uterus 8 to 9 days after ovulation. The conceptus implants and the placenta begin to be formed 16 to 18 days after ovulation. High concentrations of progesterone must be present throughout pregnancy. Progesterone during pregnancy decreases uterine contractility; stimulates secretions of the endometrial glands, which presumably provide nutrients to maintain the conceptus before implantation; and stimulates mammary development. Prolactin concentrations begin to rise at midgestation. Concentration of relaxin, released from the placenta, also rises beginning at midgestation (). The body of the bitch responds to the presence of the enlarged uterus and developing fetuses with processes designed to maintain function in the bitch while promoting development and growth of the puppies. Physiologic changes in the bitch that occur during normal pregnancy include the following: • Increased heart rate • Increased packed cell volume (% of the blood made up of red blood cells) • Increased oxygen consumption • Slower gastric emptying time • Increased blood flow to the kidney Superfecundation Read more […]

Central vestibular diseases

Degenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders are inborn errors of metabolism in vhich specific deficiencies of degradative enzymes cause substrate accumulation and result in cellular and clinical dysfunction. Neurodegenerative disorders are diseases associated with an abnormality in the metabolic pathway that leads to early death of the neuron. Several of these conditions can present with ataxia and incoordination suggestive of vestibular disease. () Anomalous diseases Chiari-like malformations Chiari-like malformations are congenital defects characterized by caudal displacement of part of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum. This occurs as a result of occipital bone dysplasia causing the caudal fossa to become abnormal in size or shape. This malformation can cause compression of the brainstem and cerebellum, and result in signs of central vestibular disease. Neoplastic diseases Brain tumours Of the primary brain tumours seen in dogs, meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas have a site predilection for the caudal lossa. As such, vestibular signs are commonly encountered in affected animals. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts are occasionally Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Degenerative diseases

Breed-specific spinal cord disease These are degenerative CNS diseases that are often inherited. They cause progressive signs and usually involve many areas of the CNS. The most common neurodegenerative disease specific to the spinal cord is degenerative myelopathy of German Shepherd Dogs and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (with sporadic reports in other breeds). As the predominant signs of this disease are paraparesis and ataxia, it will be discussed in site. However, some neurodegenerative diseases initially cause tetraparesis and ataxia. A list of such diseases can be found in Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Many of these diseases also affect other areas of the CNS and therefore cause other (e.g. cerebellar) signs. Breed Disease German Shepherd Dog, Pembroke Corgi, others Degenerative myelopathy Rottweiler Leucoencephalomyelopathy Dalmatian, Labrador Retriever Leucodystrophy Miniature Poodle Demyelination Afghan Hound, Kooiker Hound Myelopathy Labrador Retriever Axonopathy Fox Hound, Harrier Hound, Beagle Hound ataxia West Highland White Terrier, Cairn Terrier Globoid cell leucodystrophy Cervical stenotic Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Atlantoaxial instability Clinical signs: Onset of signs in dogs with the congenital form of the disease usually occurs in young animals (<2 years of age), though problems can develop at any age. Signs can develop acutely or gradually, and waxing and waning of signs is often reported – presumably a reflection of instability at the atlantoaxial junction causing repeated injury to the spinal cord. Signs include neck pain (variably present), ataxia, tetraparesis, and postural-reaction and conscious pro-prioceptive deficits with normal to increased muscle tone and myotatic reflexes in all four legs. In severe cases, animals can present with tetraplegia and difficulty in breathing and they may die acutely as a result of respiratory failure. Pathogenesis: The atlas (first cervical vertebra) and axis (second cervical vertebra) are bound together by ligaments that run from the dens of the axis to the atlas and the skull, over the dens binding it to the floor of the atlas (the transverse ligament) and between the dorsal lamina of the atlas and the dorsal spinous process of the axis (). The dens is a bony projection from the cranial aspect of the body of the axis and develops from a separate growth plate. Subluxation of Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Vascular diseases

Spinal haemorrhage Clinical signs: The clinical signs reflect the side of the haemorrhage and are acute in onset. They can be multifocal. Pathogenesis: Bleeding disorders can be inherited (e.g. von Willebrand’s disease) or acquired secondary to rodenticide toxicity or infectious / inflammatory diseases (e.g. immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation). Indeed, tick-borne infectious causes of vasculitis and thrombocytopenia, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, are common in some parts of the world. Haemorrhage into the CNS can occur with any bleeding disorder and, although unusual, it can be the first manifestation of the disease. For example, epidural haemorrhage causing spinal cord compression has been reported in Dobermann Pinschers with von Willebrand’s disease (). The presence of petechiae, ecchymoses or prolonged bleeding following venipuncture should alert the veterinarian to the possibility of a bleeding disorder. It is not unusual to find extensive extradural haemorrhage at the site of acute intervertebral disc herniations or vertebral fractures and luxations. These animals do not have an underlying coagulopathy; the haemorrhage has occurred as a direct result of disruption Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Toy Dogs

Affenpinschers Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Brussels Griffon Shoulder dislocation Cavalier King Charles Spaniels Patella luxation; Episodic weakness and collapse, a rare, inherited disorder Chihuahuas (Long and Smooth coats) Shoulders dislocation; Patella luxation, medial or lateral; Hypoplasia of dens, which produces atlantoaxial subluxation, causing neck pain and quadriplegia Chinese Cresteds Medial patella luation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease English Toy Spaniels (Blenheim/Prince Charles and King Charles/Ruby) Patella luxation, medial or lateral can occur with medial the most common, Congenital Femoral Shift Italian Greyhounds Predisposed to forelimb fractures Japanese Chin Dwarfism Maltese Patella luxatin Miniature Pinschers Shoulders dislocation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Epiphyseal dysplasia; Decreased long-bone growth; OIsteopenia Papillons Patella luxation Perkingese Hypoplaisa of dense (Odontoid Process, an atlantoaxial subluxation, causes neck pain and quadriplegia); IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Swimmers syndrome; Atypical pannus; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Pomeranians Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Dwarfism; Read more […]

The World of the Dog Show

The first dog shows took place in the 1830s and 1840s. They were low-key affairs, held in public houses, and probably invented as a result of the ban on dog-fighting and bull-baiting which left dog fanciers with little outlet for their competitive instincts. The idea of shows soon caught on, though, and the first organized dog show was held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England in 1859. Dog shows grew in popularity with the building of the railways, since breeders could travel from show to show. However, problems arose when people in different areas had conflicting ideas about how a breed should look. No single body or group was responsible for dog shows and standards varied tremendously. There was much controversy over standards and a great deal of faking. Clubs were therefore established to reach a consensus over what were and were not desirable characteristics of the various breeds. The Kennel club The kennel club in Britain was founded in 1873 to oversee the showing of dogs. The club registers the standards which describe exactly what the ideals of each breed should be. These standards are set by the individual breed societies but held by the Kennel Club. All pedigree dogs must be registered with the kennel club before Read more […]