Tag Archives: West Highland White Terrier

Zinc Acetate, Zinc Sulfate

NUTRITIONAL; TRACE ELEMENT Highlights of Prescribing Information Metal nutritional agent that may be used for zinc deficiency, to reduce copper toxicity in susceptible dog breeds (Bedlington Terriers, West Highland White Terriers) with hepatic copper toxicosis, & treat hepatic fibrosis in dogs. Has astringent & antiseptic activity topically. Contraindications: None; consider obtaining zinc & copper levels before treating. Adverse Effects: Large doses may cause GI disturbances or hematologic abnormalities (usually hemolysis), particularly if a coexistent copper deficiency exists Zinc overdoses (e.g., U.S. Pennies) can be serious What Is Drug Used For? Zinc sulfate is used systemically as a nutritional supplement in a variety of species. Oral zinc acetate has been shown to reduce copper toxicity in susceptible dog breeds (Bedlington Terriers, West Highland White Terriers) with hepatic copper toxicosis. Zinc therapy may also be of benefit in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in the dog. Zinc sulfate is used topically as an astringent and as a weak antiseptic both for dermatologic and ophthalmic conditions. Pharmacology / Actions Zinc is a necessary nutritional supplement; it is required by Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Anomalies of the Ureters

Ureteral Agenesis Ureteral agenesis is the congenital absence of one or both ureters due to incomplete ureteral bud formation. Unilateral ureteral agenesis is the most common form observed in dogs and cats and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral renal aplasia (). Ureteral Duplication Ureteral duplication is a congenital disorder involving complete or partial duplication of one ureter. This disorder has been associated with a duplexed kidney and a supernumerary kidney in dogs; ureteral duplication has not been observed in cats (). Ureteral Valves Congenital ureteral valves are persistent transverse folds of vestigial mucosa and smooth muscle fibers forming annular, semiannular, or diaphragmatic lesions in the ureter (). Semiannular ureteral valves have been described in a 6-month-old female collie with unilateral ureterectasis, hydronephrosis, and urinary incontinence (). The etiopathogenesis of urinary incontinence associated with ureteral valves in this case is uncertain. Ectopic Ureters Ureteral ectopia is a congenital anomaly in which one or both ureters terminate abnormally in the urinary bladder. Intramural ectopic ureters contact and enter the bladder wall normally but continue submucosally through the Read more […]

Superficial Mycoses

These are fungal infections that involve the skin, hair and nails. Dermatophytosis (ringworm) dermatophytosis is the term used for infection with species of Microsporum, Trichophyton or Epidermophyton. Dermatomycosis is the term used for infection with non-dermatophytes almost all cases of dermatophytosis in the dog or cat are caused by fungi of the genera Microsporum or Trichophyton the fungi attack the keratin of the hair only in the anagen phase of the growth cycle Clinical features dermatophytosis in the dog is rare in the United Kingdom prevalence () in the UK is: canis 65% mentagrophytes (mouse or vole) 23% mentagrophytes var. erinacei (hedgehogs) 5.2% persicolor (mouse or vole) 4% verrucosum, T. terrestre, M. gypseum (soil) 1.6% infection is by direct contact with an infected animal or contaminated material from the environment in healthy animals dermatophytosis is a self-limiting disease; young animals which lack acquired immunity or any animal with compromised immunity (particularly cell-mediated) are susceptible lesions are variable and include circular patchy alopecia (), erythematous plaques, folliculitis, scales and crusts. The lesions may be localized or diffuse, Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Degenerative diseases

Breed-specific spinal cord disease These are degenerative CNS diseases that are often inherited. They cause progressive signs and usually involve many areas of the CNS. The most common neurodegenerative disease specific to the spinal cord is degenerative myelopathy of German Shepherd Dogs and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (with sporadic reports in other breeds). As the predominant signs of this disease are paraparesis and ataxia, it will be discussed in site. However, some neurodegenerative diseases initially cause tetraparesis and ataxia. A list of such diseases can be found in Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Many of these diseases also affect other areas of the CNS and therefore cause other (e.g. cerebellar) signs. Breed Disease German Shepherd Dog, Pembroke Corgi, others Degenerative myelopathy Rottweiler Leucoencephalomyelopathy Dalmatian, Labrador Retriever Leucodystrophy Miniature Poodle Demyelination Afghan Hound, Kooiker Hound Myelopathy Labrador Retriever Axonopathy Fox Hound, Harrier Hound, Beagle Hound ataxia West Highland White Terrier, Cairn Terrier Globoid cell leucodystrophy Cervical stenotic Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever;┬áSaint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or┬áSaint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Allergy

Diseases Of Different Organs Allergy is a reaction to an environmental material, usually protein, which has invaded the body. The commonest allergies are seen as skin reactions or as digestive disturbances. The allergies – external sources causing allergy – can result in contact dermatitis of the type often seen in West Highland White Terriers. This breed seems to react to a large number of substances which come into contact with its skin; care is necessary in choosing bedding material. A developing allergy is complex and more consequential than irritation, intolerance or inability to digest foods. It does not develop immediately, but begins as a period of sensitization. The identification of the substance which causes the reaction requires much detective work based on a process of elimination. Household cleaners, synthetic fibres in floor coverings and clothing, and aerosol sprays may be responsible for the occasional allergic reaction in dogs. Food-induced allergies are relatively unusual, accounting for only one per cent of all canine allergies. The detection of the food substances which provoke an allergic reaction needs patience and relies for effectiveness on a strict regime of test feeding. The dog is put on Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Terriers

Airedale Terriers Hip dysplasia; Trembling hindquarters seen after six months of age; Thyroid disorders American Staffordshire Terriers Ruptured curciate ligament (very common) Australian Terriers Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Patella luxation Border Terriers Patella luxation; Hip dysplasia Bull Terriers None recorded in veterinary literature Cairn Terriers Patella luxation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Dandie Dinmont Terriers IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Achondroplasia; Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Hip dysplasia; Shoulder luxation; Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias Fox Terriers (Smooth and Wire) Shoulder dislocation; Legg Calves Perthes disease; Myasthenia gravis Irish Terriers Muscular dystrophy Kerry Blue Terriers UAP (ununited anconeal process) Lakeland Terriers UAP (ununited anconeal process); Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Manchester Terriers (Standard and Toy) Legg-Calves Perthes disease Miniature Schnauzers Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Muscular dystrophy Scottish Terriers Dwarfism; Scoottie cramp, characterized by rigidity of limbs with dog recovering in 30 seconds; Thyroid disorders; Elbow dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease) Sealyham Terriers IVD (intervertebrate Read more […]

Anatomy Of The Dog: What is a Breed

A few months ago, the United Kennel Club added nine breeds, to its registry, bringing its total to 160. Last month, the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Eskimo to its miscellaneous group, the first step towards official recognition as an AKC breed. The new UKC breeds are Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen, Canaan Dog, English Toy Spaniel, Finnish Spitz, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Manchester Terrier, Polish Owczarek Nizinny, Tibetan Spaniel and Shiba, all but the Nizziny are recognized by the AKC, some of them for many years, and AKC’s newest, the American Eskimo, has been a UKC breed for a long time. Both registries seem to be in race to add new breeds to their lists, a race that some critics say is an effort to increase the treasuries of both organizations. This rush, along with the apparent whimsical assignment of breed status in some cases, an increase in breed-specific laws in the last few years, and the call by animal rights advocates for a ban on breeding pure bred dogs, has caused some to wonder about the definition of breed. So what is a breed? Webster’s Desk Dictionary of the English Language defines a breed as “a homogeneous grouping Read more […]