Tag Archives: Weimaraner

The Eye

The Ophthalmic Examination History A complete ophthalmic history is an essential part of every puppy’s or kitten’s examination. Owners may be asked questions regarding the animal’s signalment, history of the presenting complaint(s), and any pertinent medical or ophthalmic diseases in the animal’s family histories. Other historical information that may be included is the animal’s vaccination status, diet, environment, and exposure to other animals. Previous therapy should be identified to prevent repetition of an unsuccessful regimen. Procedure Ophthalmic examination should be performed in a quiet area. Puppies usually require only gentle but firm restraint of the head. Very young puppies cooperate nicely when held in an assistant’s arms. Kittens can also be gently restrained and are less likely to demonstrate the constant ocular motion typical of puppies. Uncooperative puppies or kittens may be placed in a towel or restraint bag. Assessment of ocular abnormalities such as orbital swelling, squinting, or ocular discharge can be done in a well-lighted room, but actual ophthalmoscopic examination should be done with the lights dimmed. A bright source of focal illumination is required; the Finoff transilluminator on Read more […]

Tremor and involuntary movements

Involuntary movement disorders result in some of the most dramatic clinical presentations in veterinary medicine. Classically, these disorders are present during periods of inactivity rather than during voluntary movement. Cerebellar disease, conversely, can result in apparent involuntary abnormalities during movement. Some involuntary movements are persistent while others are episodic. Certain involuntary movements have characteristics that allow for identification of specific causes, whereas others are only a reflection of dysfunction of the nervous or musculoskeletal systems. Clinically, it is important to first identify the type of involuntary movement present. Subsequently, a more directed approach can be used to establish the cause of the movement disorder. Clinical signs Involuntary movement disorders are less well classified in animals than in humans. Terms such as tics, twitches, shivering, shuddering and fasciculation are often used to describe episodic, irregular muscle contractions. They are usually manifested through abnormal motion of the limbs, trunk or head. There are seven forms of involuntary movement. Myoclonus Myoclonus is a shock-like contraction of a muscle or muscles that tends to occur repeatedly Read more […]

Generalized Tremor Syndromes

Generalized tremors are surprisingly common in dogs (). This type of tremor can occur secondary to intoxications, drug therapies, congenital myelin abnormalities, storage diseases, encephalitis, or may arise without a definable cause. Degenerative diseases Lysosomal storage diseases Lysosomal storage diseases of the nervous system may have tremor as a presenting abnormality. Examples include globoid cell leucodystrophy, mannosidosis and gangliosidosis. The numerous storage diseases and their associated characteristic clinical signs have been described elsewhere (). Clinical signs: These diseases are often breed-related () with clinical signs first appearing in animals <1 year of age, but they can occur at any age. Many of these diseases involve the cerebellum and are associated with intention tremors. Pathogenesis: Accumulation of metabolic byproducts within neurons or the surrounding neuropil usually results from an inherited deficiency of a specific catabolic enzyme. The accumulation causes dysfunction of the cells and regions of the nervous system affected. Diagnosis: Ante-mortem testing for many of these diseases often results in negative or normal findings. CSF analysis is often normal, although Read more […]

Domestication Aspects, Behavior and Welfare of Dogs

Juliana Damasceno and Rachel Stopatto Righetti, 2013 The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that we currently know is the species among the thirty-eight belonging to the family Canidae that has been fully domesticated and has been our companion far longer than our other favorite pet, the cat. Fossil evidence shows that since the Paleolithic age, dogs have been linked to humans. This mutual relation caused the selection of the ancestral Canis lupus (wolf) to occur artificially because of the wolf‘s proximity to man and because of some of the wolf‘s useful characteristics (hunting, guarding farm animals, companionship, etc.). Despite the great variety of breeds that morphologically diverge, the health, biological and psychological needs of dogs are common to all breeds, emphasizing one or another characteristic for each breed. Pet dogs generally live in restricted environments with their owners, who must ensure that their physical and psychological needs are satisfied. Thus the welfare of the animal depends on humans‘ knowledge of the behavior of the species. An understanding of dog behavior and the right tools can provide better care for these animals (environmental enrichment techniques), and various diseases Read more […]

Paraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Dermoid sinus Clinical signs: Dermoid sinuses more often occur in the cervical region but can involve the thoracolumbar region (). Neurological examination is normal in the non-communicating form but neurological signs may occur if the sinus communicates with the dura or becomes infected (). Neurological signs reflect the neuroanatomical localization of the sinus. Close inspection of the hair on the midline may reveal abnormal placement. Pathogenesis: Dermoid sinus is an inherited neural tube defect in the Rhodesian Ridgeback () but has also been reported in other breeds (). The defect results from incomplete separation of the skin and neural tube during embryonic development (). The sinus often extends from the skin to the supraspinous ligament as a closed sac filled with keratin debris. Communication with the subarachnoid space can predispose to meningomyelitis. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on physical examination; radiography can be used to evaluate the extent of the sinus. Contrast radiography, using a non-ionic contrast medium (e.g. iohexol), determines whether the tract is closed and non-communicating or open and communicating with the spinal canal. Myelography determines the amount of spinal cord displacement. Read more […]

Basic Training: Command HEEL

In the wild a dog can roam free and exercise himself. In the city you have to make sure he gets enough exercise by walking him and Playing with him. Professional dog walkers are fine, but if you walk your dog yourself, the experience will be far more rewarding. A six-foot leash is fine and its purpose is not only to keep your dog from running away, but also to teach him that he is to stay by your side. Every client is taught how to walk his dog properly. The dog should walk and not pull you down the street. Ideally, your dog should now know enough to sit and stay when he’s told to. But what’s to keep him at your side when you’re actually walking him? If you can’t answer that one, you are in for some unpleasant experiences. One woman’s two great Danes pulled her down the street three times a day until the dogs saw a cat on the other side of the street. A strikingly beautiful girl, who never owned even one dog bought two English setters to promenade in the park. One day both dogs headed for the same telephone pole, and each dog opted for a different side… Heeling is as important for your dog as it is for you. Which of us hasn’t seen a small dog straining against his leash at a 45-degree angle, choking and gagging Read more […]

Basic Training: Command LIE DOWN

It is best to hold off teaching your dog to lie down until after you have him coming to you on command. This way, you stand a better chance of not having him confuse the command with “sit” or “stay.” The three are fairly similar, after all, so it’s better to separate these commands in time so that he understands they are separate and distinct. The “down” command is a relatively easy one, but for some strange reason, it tends to be something many dogs are obstinate about. Often you will find that when you tell your dog to sit and stay, after a while he will get tired and lie down, but when you tell him to lie down, he will refuse. Make sure that your dog learns that you mean what you say, and that “sit” means sit only. Teaching the dog to lie down is a much easier operation than “come.” Most of the teachings are relatively easy. They just eat up a lot of your patience. The first thing to do is to sit yourself down comfortably on the floor facing your dog, who should also be sitting. Place one hand on his upper back and the other behind the lower part of his front legs. Give the command “down,” and at the same time, push down on his back and pull his legs out from under him-very carefully so that he doesn’t think Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Sporting Dogs

Brittany Patella luxation: Hip dysplasia Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Clumber Spaniels Hip dysplasia Cocker Spaniels (American) Hip dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Anury (no tail, no caudal vertebrae); Brachury (short tail) Curly-Coated Retrievers Thyroid disorders; Calcium metabolic disorders; Juvenile osteoporosis. English Cocker Spaniels Swimmers syndrome (i.e. the inability to stand at four to six weeks of age) English Setters Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias English Springer Spaniels Hip dysplasia; Myasthenia gravis Field Spaniels Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Flat-Coated Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Patella luxation; Neoplasias German Shorthaired Pointers Pannus; Neoplasias German Wirehaired Pointers Hip dysplasia; Toe fractures Golden Retrievers Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of elbow; Muscular dystrophy; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias Gordon Setters Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Irish Setters Generalized myopathy (i.e. stiff gait and other difficulties); Carpal (pastern luxation; Read more […]

Mysteries of color

In my time I have read a lot of books on dogs written by people from many breeds – there is one point that has always interested me but which I have never seen positively answered. It arises in many different breeds, especially in the bull breed subgroup, and in several different ways., The point is the genetic difference between the colours red and fawn, if indeed there is a genetic difference. Old sourmug.the Bulldog is behind many breeds in which these two colours occur, perhaps not quite in. his present day form, but undoubtedly behind them an many generations ago. Now the Bulldog appears in a wide range of colours, two of which are rich deep red and pale smutty fawn – light fawn with dark tip to the hairs. He a so appears in lighter shades of red and deeper shades of fawn, with or without smart markings, sometimes so that it is not at all easy to say whether a particular dog’s coat is pale red or deep fawn. Similar In the first example mentioned above, there is a very marked difference between the two dog’s colors.. In the second one they are very similar indeed. both are recessive to brindle and probably dominant to black and tan but how ,genetically, are they related to each other?. Is the deep red dominant to Read more […]