Tag Archives: Tosa

Chronic small intestinal diseases

Parasitic enteritis Infestation with roundworms does occur especially in puppies and kittens. Where there is a heavy infestation in a puppy or kitten this may be associated with poor growth, distention of the abdomen and mucoid diarrhoea. They are rarely implicated in causing chronic diarrhoea in adult dogs and cats. The authors have examined faeces from many hundreds of dogs and cats as part of the investigation for chronic diarrhoea but detected roundworms in less than 5% of cases. Migrating larvae may cause damage to the lungs and liver especially if present in large numbers. Hookworm infestation in the UK usually involves Uncinaria spp. which are not blood-sucking like Ancylostoma spp. Both may be implicated in causing diarrhoea if present in large numbers, with associated colic and melaena. In addition to these signs if the damage caused to the mucosa is severe, then plasma proteins may be lost into the intestine. Tapeworms even when present in large numbers rarely cause diarrhoea. Diagnosis of roundworm infestation is made from examination of the faeces for ova. Where evidence of worms is detected, they should be treated and the animal reassessed at a later date, so that parasites can be definitively ruled Read more […]

Lacrimal Apparatus

The precorneal tear film is essential to maintain the normal transparent state of the cornea. The tear film consists of a superficial oily layer, a central aqueous (serous) layer, and a thin mucous (glycoproteinaceous) layer covering the cornea. The oily layer, produced by the modified sebaceous glands of the lid margin (tarsal or Meibomian glands), provides lubrication, prevents overflow of tears from the lid margins, and retards evaporation of the underlying aqueous layer. The thickness of this lipid layer varies from 0.013 to 0.586 µm in the normal dog. Expressed as equivalents of lauryl laurate, lipid levels in canine tears ranged between 3.51 (±0.8) and 3.41 (±0.68) g/mm2 eyelid margin surface. The aqueous layer is the major component of the precorneal tear film and is understood to mix readily with subjacent mucous later. It is produced by the lacrimal gland and the superficial gland of the third eyelid and contains a variety of factors necessary for maintaining corneal health. The aqueous layer also contains antimicrobial compounds such as transferrin and the immunoglobulin (Ig) A (the predominant immunoglobulin), IgG, and IgM. Lysozyme, another nonspecific antimicrobial compound, is absent in the dog. Nerve Read more […]


The ovary, or female gonad, is a paired oval organ, attached by a mesovarium to the body wall and the mesosalpinx. The mesovarium proximale extends from the body wall to the origin of the mesosalpinx, and the mesovarium distale extends from the origin of the mesosalpinx to the ovary and forms part of the wall of the ovarian bursa. The ovary lies caudal to the kidney () and contains all of the ovocytes that the female will ovulate in her lifetime (). It is also the source of several hormones. In a 25-pound dog, an ovary averages 1.5 cm in length, 0.7 cm in width, 0.5 cm in thickness, and 0.3 g in weight. In its normal position, an ovary may be described as having tubal and uterine extremities, a free border, and medial and lateral surfaces. The tubal end is nearest the infundibulum. The uterine end is the end attached to the uterus by the proper ligament of the ovary. The ovary is smooth in appearance before estrus, which occurs for the first time between 6 and 9 months of age. In multipa-rous bitches (several litters) the surface may be rough and nodular. At times the ovaries are dissimilar in size, in which case the left ovary is usually larger. A laparoscopic study of the ovary of a cycling bitch was made by Wildt Read more […]