Tag Archives: Scottish Terrier

Hypersensitivity Skin Disorders

Clinical hypersensitivity disorders have been classified by Gel and Coombes. The following description is simplified since in many instances complex interactions occur simultaneously. Type 1 (immediate, anaphylactic) genetically susceptible individuals inhale (absorb percutaneously?) allergens such as pollen and house dust, and produce immunoglobulin E (IgE), which fixes to tissue mast cells and blood basophils the allergen subsequently comes into contact with its specific IgE, leading to the release of vasoactive amines, which cause tissue damage examples are urticaria, angio-oedema, atopy, drug eruption and flea-bite hypersensitivity Type 2 (cytotoxic) IgG or IgM with or without complement binds to complete antigens on body tissues the antigen—antibody reaction causes cell lysis examples are pemphigus, pemphigoid, cold agglutinin disease and dnig eruption Type 3 (immune complex) circulating antigen-antibody complexes fix complement and are deposited in blood vessel walls these complexes attract neutrophils; proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released from the neutrophils produce tissue damage examples are systemic lupus erythematosus and bacterial hypersensitivity Type 4 (delayed) incomplete Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

Hypothyroidism

the commonest endocrine disorder of the dog the acquired naturally occurring condition has not been documented in the cat although the extremely rare congenital form has been described the metabolically active thyroid hormones are L-thyroxine (T4) and L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Aetiology Primary congenital agenesis (rare) non-functional thyroid tumour (rare) lymphocytic thyroiditis; the most important cause (approximately 90%), an autoimmune disorder which results in thyroid destruction idiopathic thyroid necrosis and atrophy may represent the end stage of lymphocytic thyroiditis Secondary Less common than primary1 causes (less than 5%) TSH deficiency leading to inadequate stimulation of the thyroid gland with subsequent reduction in the production of thyroid hormone congenital hypopituitarism (usually in association with GH deficiency) pituitary neoplasia (may present with other signs, e.g. diabetes insipidus) Tertiary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency results in deficiency of TSH and reduction in thyroid hormone production due to hypothalamic lesions — extremely rare other equally rare causes of hypothyroidism include: iodine deficiency defects in thyroid Read more […]

Epistaxis

Basic Information Definition Bleeding from the nasal cavity Synonyms Hemorrhagic nasal discharge, nosebleed Epidemiology Species, Age, Sex. Dependent on underlying cause: Young purebred animals: coagulopathies Young to middle-aged animals: infectious diseases, trauma Middle-aged animals: acquired immune-mediated diseases Older animals: neoplasia Genetics, Breed Predisposition, and Risk Factors Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia: young to middle-aged, small to medium female dogs Rickettsial disease: dogs living or traveling to endemic areas Thrombasthenia: otter hounds Thrombopathia: basset hounds von Willebrand disease: Doberman pinscher, Airedale, German shepherd, Scottish terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, and many other breeds; cats: Himalayan Hemophilia A: German shepherd and many other breeds; cats Hemophilia B: Cairn terrier, coon-hounds, Saint Bernard, and other breeds; cats Nasal lesions: – Aspergillosis: German shepherd, dolichocephalic breeds – Neoplasia: dolichocephalic breeds Contagion & Zoonosis Fungal infections (transmission potential appears low). Clinical Presentation History, Chief Complaint: (Some or all may be present.) Nasal hemorrhage Sneezing Pawing Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Sensory Abilities: Extrasensory Perception

Do dogs possess a sixth sense? Many authors writing to a popular audience, among them trainers, veterinarians, and behavioral consultants, have suggested that dogs may use information derived from sources other than the normal senses. These beliefs have been reinforced in the publics mind by animal psychics claiming to communicate with dogs telepathically and to perform extraordinary feats, ranging from locating lost pets (both dead and alive) to diagnosing behavioral and medical problems by psychically “talking” with the distressed animals. Such extraordinary abilities have not been successfully demonstrated under controlled laboratory conditions; nonetheless, they are widely held to be real abilities and supported by the testimonies of many satisfied customers. Some dog trainers, most notably Woodhouse (1982), claim that a very active telepathic linkage exists between trainer and dog: It is extraordinary how dogs pick up praise straight from your brain almost before you have time to put it into words. A dog’s mind is so quick in picking up your thoughts that, as you think them, they enter the dog’s mind simultaneously. I have great difficulty in this matter in giving the owners commands in class, for the dog obeys Read more […]

Muscular and Skeletal Diseases

Arthritis Disc Protrusion Hip Dysplasia Canine hip and Elbow Dysplasia Scottie Cramp Swimmer Tetany Fractures Wobbler’s Syndrome, Surgical Success Arthritis Joint degeneration may be a result of deterioration with age, physical damage or infectious disease. Where changes occur in the cartilage which forms the articular part of the joint they are usually degenerative rather than inflammatory. Inflammatory changes occur with generalized infections or when one or two joints only are affected by an injury. The more inflammation the more pain with movement. Infection and injury, although more painful, may often result in eventual healing. With degenerative changes there is usually less inflammation, but more limitation of movement. Antibiotics are extensively used in the treatment of joint infections so as to prevent changes which will permanently incapacitate the dog. joint damage usually needs radiographic examination for a proper diagnosis and evaluation of the extent of damage. The commonest joints to show pathological changes are the stifle and the hip in the hindleg, and the shoulder and carpus in the foreleg. Some hip problems can be resolved by completely excising the head of the femur where it sits in the hip Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Breed Action

In some breeds, admitting to the occurrence of an inherited defect is hazardous. Many breeders will openly condemn those who confess to having had a problem. It is as if breeders believe that silence will make the defect go away. This is clearly not the case, indeed, it is more likely that defects will spread. It is far more mature to admit to problems and collectively try to solve them. In the short term there may be heartache and economic loss for some, but in the long term the breed will benefit. It is crucial that breeders do not simply rely on pedigree data vvhen trying to evaluate problems. If a defect is recessive or suspected as being recessive, then the need is not only for five generation pedigrees of affected animals but also numbers of the litter born, their sexes status and, in the case of defects seen in later life, the age at examination. Given such data, a geneticist can help a breed examine the problem in depth. Given a list of “affected” pedigrees only on is in danger of “tracing the defect to a certain dog” without being aware that all pedigrees, affected and normal, trace to him. Any widely used stud might appear in “affected” pedigree without actually being the source of the problem though in some Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Terriers

Airedale Terriers Hip dysplasia; Trembling hindquarters seen after six months of age; Thyroid disorders American Staffordshire Terriers Ruptured curciate ligament (very common) Australian Terriers Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Patella luxation Border Terriers Patella luxation; Hip dysplasia Bull Terriers None recorded in veterinary literature Cairn Terriers Patella luxation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Dandie Dinmont Terriers IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Achondroplasia; Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Hip dysplasia; Shoulder luxation; Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias Fox Terriers (Smooth and Wire) Shoulder dislocation; Legg Calves Perthes disease; Myasthenia gravis Irish Terriers Muscular dystrophy Kerry Blue Terriers UAP (ununited anconeal process) Lakeland Terriers UAP (ununited anconeal process); Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Manchester Terriers (Standard and Toy) Legg-Calves Perthes disease Miniature Schnauzers Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Muscular dystrophy Scottish Terriers Dwarfism; Scoottie cramp, characterized by rigidity of limbs with dog recovering in 30 seconds; Thyroid disorders; Elbow dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease) Sealyham Terriers IVD (intervertebrate Read more […]

Show dogs coats

A leading all breeds judge and breeder disscuses show dogs coats. Just as some boys are crazy about football, cricket, swimming or other sports, Jimmy Mitchell at the age of 11 years was crazy about dogs. So much so that his first, 10/- pocket money was invested in a Smooth Fox Terrier. The bug has remained constant ever since. The age of 22 found him judging at the smaller English shows in company with Personalities whose names have become famous throughout the dog world. To mention a few, J:W: Marples, Tom Scott, Mac Donald Daly; Joe Braddon, Alex Mutrray James Garrow, John Benyon and many, many, more. Owning or handing during his show career about 25 different breeds brought him innumerable best-in-show and over 4,000 first prizes. In 1953, he came to New Zealand and since then would probably have judged more shows than any other judge, including a section of the first N.Z. National. He has visited Australia four times and has judged, among his other shows, a Brisbane Royal. This article was written immediately before he returned to New Zealand recently after juding Four P’s,Mainly all Breeds Kennel Club and the Corgi Club of N.S.W. Championship show. in which there were 320 Corgis entered. Still as fanatical as Read more […]