Tag Archives: Scottish Terrier

Dachshund

History and Development It is certain that by chance, mutation and finally by recognized breeding, the Dachshund, or Teckel as it is known in Germany, has been evolved from the oldest known breeds of dog. In old German documents there is mention of the “Tracking Dog ‘ and of the Bibarhunt or predecessor of the Teckel. In 16th century documents repeated reference is made lo “Little Burrow Dog”, “Badger Dog” and “Dacksel”, and woodcuts of 1576 to 1582 show cross-bred dogs on lengthy Dachshund bodies. Ai the end of the 17th century the “Badger Fighter” is described as a “peculiar low crooked legged specie”, while in 1848 Teckels became well known to hunting historians of that period and were described as follows: A good looking Dachshund is long and low, the back arched, belly drawn up weasel fashion, chest deep, neck long and strong, canine teeth interlocking closely, the eye expressive and spirited, the tail fine and not carried too gaily. The hind legs more still and straight than is usually the case in other dogs. Forelegs strong and muscular, not crooked but only with the broad strong feet turned outwards. Throughout the centuries our Dachshund was bred as a hunting dog. Definitely to the year 1848, the Smooth-haired Read more […]

Scottish Terrier

History and Development It has been said many times that the origin of the Scottish Terrier dates back several centuries. On this assumption, it is clear that if length of genealogy counts for anything at all, the Scottish Terrier is a real aristocrat in the canine world. It is, of course, generally accepted that some other breeds of terriers have been described as “Terriers of Scotland”. When one considers Scotland with its Highlands and Lowlands and unique variety of terrain, can it be questioned that a number of breeds of terriers were produced for specialized work in certain areas. Without controversy, therefore, it can be claimed that the Scottish Terrier (or Aberdeen Terrier as he was at one lime described) as we know him today is descended in a direct line from terriers bred for character, pluck and determination and for a particular purpose. Notwithstanding refinements which, largely for show purposes, have crept into the breed, many Scottish Terriers of today could well do the job their ancestors were bred to do so many years ago. As already indicated, the Scottie is not a new breed; it has established itself as a firm favorite over a long period. Scottish Terrier: Color The Standard of the breed allows Read more […]

Hypersensitivity Skin Disorders

Clinical hypersensitivity disorders have been classified by Gel and Coombes. The following description is simplified since in many instances complex interactions occur simultaneously. Type 1 (immediate, anaphylactic) genetically susceptible individuals inhale (absorb percutaneously?) allergens such as pollen and house dust, and produce immunoglobulin E (IgE), which fixes to tissue mast cells and blood basophils the allergen subsequently comes into contact with its specific IgE, leading to the release of vasoactive amines, which cause tissue damage examples are urticaria, angio-oedema, atopy, drug eruption and flea-bite hypersensitivity Type 2 (cytotoxic) IgG or IgM with or without complement binds to complete antigens on body tissues the antigen—antibody reaction causes cell lysis examples are pemphigus, pemphigoid, cold agglutinin disease and dnig eruption Type 3 (immune complex) circulating antigen-antibody complexes fix complement and are deposited in blood vessel walls these complexes attract neutrophils; proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released from the neutrophils produce tissue damage examples are systemic lupus erythematosus and bacterial hypersensitivity Type 4 (delayed) incomplete Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

Hypothyroidism

the commonest endocrine disorder of the dog the acquired naturally occurring condition has not been documented in the cat although the extremely rare congenital form has been described the metabolically active thyroid hormones are L-thyroxine (T4) and L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Aetiology Primary congenital agenesis (rare) non-functional thyroid tumour (rare) lymphocytic thyroiditis; the most important cause (approximately 90%), an autoimmune disorder which results in thyroid destruction idiopathic thyroid necrosis and atrophy may represent the end stage of lymphocytic thyroiditis Secondary Less common than primary1 causes (less than 5%) TSH deficiency leading to inadequate stimulation of the thyroid gland with subsequent reduction in the production of thyroid hormone congenital hypopituitarism (usually in association with GH deficiency) pituitary neoplasia (may present with other signs, e.g. diabetes insipidus) Tertiary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency results in deficiency of TSH and reduction in thyroid hormone production due to hypothalamic lesions — extremely rare other equally rare causes of hypothyroidism include: iodine deficiency defects in thyroid Read more […]

Epistaxis

Basic Information Definition Bleeding from the nasal cavity Synonyms Hemorrhagic nasal discharge, nosebleed Epidemiology Species, Age, Sex. Dependent on underlying cause: Young purebred animals: coagulopathies Young to middle-aged animals: infectious diseases, trauma Middle-aged animals: acquired immune-mediated diseases Older animals: neoplasia Genetics, Breed Predisposition, and Risk Factors Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia: young to middle-aged, small to medium female dogs Rickettsial disease: dogs living or traveling to endemic areas Thrombasthenia: otter hounds Thrombopathia: basset hounds von Willebrand disease: Doberman pinscher, Airedale, German shepherd, Scottish terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, and many other breeds; cats: Himalayan Hemophilia A: German shepherd and many other breeds; cats Hemophilia B: Cairn terrier, coon-hounds, Saint Bernard, and other breeds; cats Nasal lesions: – Aspergillosis: German shepherd, dolichocephalic breeds – Neoplasia: dolichocephalic breeds Contagion & Zoonosis Fungal infections (transmission potential appears low). Clinical Presentation History, Chief Complaint: (Some or all may be present.) Nasal hemorrhage Sneezing Pawing Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Sensory Abilities: Extrasensory Perception

Do dogs possess a sixth sense? Many authors writing to a popular audience, among them trainers, veterinarians, and behavioral consultants, have suggested that dogs may use information derived from sources other than the normal senses. These beliefs have been reinforced in the publics mind by animal psychics claiming to communicate with dogs telepathically and to perform extraordinary feats, ranging from locating lost pets (both dead and alive) to diagnosing behavioral and medical problems by psychically “talking” with the distressed animals. Such extraordinary abilities have not been successfully demonstrated under controlled laboratory conditions; nonetheless, they are widely held to be real abilities and supported by the testimonies of many satisfied customers. Some dog trainers, most notably Woodhouse (1982), claim that a very active telepathic linkage exists between trainer and dog: It is extraordinary how dogs pick up praise straight from your brain almost before you have time to put it into words. A dog’s mind is so quick in picking up your thoughts that, as you think them, they enter the dog’s mind simultaneously. I have great difficulty in this matter in giving the owners commands in class, for the dog obeys Read more […]

Muscular and Skeletal Diseases

Arthritis Disc Protrusion Hip Dysplasia Canine hip and Elbow Dysplasia Scottie Cramp Swimmer Tetany Fractures Wobbler’s Syndrome, Surgical Success Arthritis Joint degeneration may be a result of deterioration with age, physical damage or infectious disease. Where changes occur in the cartilage which forms the articular part of the joint they are usually degenerative rather than inflammatory. Inflammatory changes occur with generalized infections or when one or two joints only are affected by an injury. The more inflammation the more pain with movement. Infection and injury, although more painful, may often result in eventual healing. With degenerative changes there is usually less inflammation, but more limitation of movement. Antibiotics are extensively used in the treatment of joint infections so as to prevent changes which will permanently incapacitate the dog. joint damage usually needs radiographic examination for a proper diagnosis and evaluation of the extent of damage. The commonest joints to show pathological changes are the stifle and the hip in the hindleg, and the shoulder and carpus in the foreleg. Some hip problems can be resolved by completely excising the head of the femur where it sits in the hip Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Breed Action

In some breeds, admitting to the occurrence of an inherited defect is hazardous. Many breeders will openly condemn those who confess to having had a problem. It is as if breeders believe that silence will make the defect go away. This is clearly not the case, indeed, it is more likely that defects will spread. It is far more mature to admit to problems and collectively try to solve them. In the short term there may be heartache and economic loss for some, but in the long term the breed will benefit. It is crucial that breeders do not simply rely on pedigree data vvhen trying to evaluate problems. If a defect is recessive or suspected as being recessive, then the need is not only for five generation pedigrees of affected animals but also numbers of the litter born, their sexes status and, in the case of defects seen in later life, the age at examination. Given such data, a geneticist can help a breed examine the problem in depth. Given a list of “affected” pedigrees only on is in danger of “tracing the defect to a certain dog” without being aware that all pedigrees, affected and normal, trace to him. Any widely used stud might appear in “affected” pedigree without actually being the source of the problem though in some Read more […]