Tag Archives: Rottweiler

Dental Disease and Care

An oral examination should be performed each time a puppy or kitten is presented. Many pathologic or potentially pathologic conditions can be detected at an early age and corrective measures taken. Introducing the pet owner to the concept of oral home care and regular professional dental prophylaxis are the two most important responsibilities of the veterinarian with regard to dental disease care and prevention. Tooth Morphology There are three types of teeth in the deciduous dentition of puppies and kittens: incisor (I), canine (C), and premolar (P); a fourth type, molar (M), is found in the permanent dentition. Each type is designed to be self-cleaning in the non-crowded scissors occlusion, when the animal eats a natural diet, that is, catches its prey. Each tooth type serves a specific function. Incisor teeth are for grooming and nibbling, canine teeth are for grasping and tearing, premolars are for shearing, and molars are for grinding. The cat, a true carnivore, has no occlusal surface on the mandibular molar. The maxillary molar is small and vestigial in the cat (). Each tooth is covered with enamel, the hardest body substance. The bulk of the tooth is dentin, a living tissue that continues to be deposited Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Viral infections

Canine and feline viral enteritis are usually diagnosed in younger unvaccinated animals. The animal’s age, history, clinical signs and haematological findings are important in ranking a viral aetiology as a likely cause of the animal’s diarrhoea. Canine parvovirus Dogs are susceptible to infection by two types of parvovirus. Canine parvovirus-1 (CPV-1) is a relatively non-pathogenic virus that is occasionally associated with myocarditis, pneumonitis and gastroenteritis in very young puppies. Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) causes classic parvovirus enteritis 5-12 days after infection via the faecal-oral route. CPV-2b is a more recently recognized mutated form of CPV-2, which may be more pathogenic in some dogs. Dobermanns, Rottweilers, Pit Bull Terriers and Labrador Retrievers appear more susceptible than other breeds. The virus replicates in the intestinal crypts and causes severe villous blunting, diarrhoea, vomiting and subsequent bacterial translocation. Presenting complaints can vary from lethargy and anorexia, to vomiting with or without blood. Diarrhoea can” be absent In the early stages of infection and usually occurs 24-48 hours after onset of vomiting. The diarrhoea can often be profuse and haemorrhagic. Read more […]

Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia / Pyometra

Development Pyometra is a relatively common disorder of older intact female dogs. True incidence is not known because most bitches in the United States are spayed when they are young. Pyometra is a two-step process with initial cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) followed by infection. As the name implies, CEH is a cystic thickening of the endometrium, or uterine lining (). CEH can be created experimentally by exposing uterine tissue either to estrogen or to progesterone. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia develops to a greater extent and more quickly if the uterus is first exposed to estrogen and then is exposed to progesterone. This is the normal hormonal sequence of the estrous cycle in dogs. CEH develops over time after repeated estrous cycles in the dog. There are four grades of cystic endometrial hyperplasia described by Dow: worsening in severity from type I (mild changes) to type IV (severe changes with associated inflammation and tissue destruction). As might be expected because this is a progressive disorder, mean age at diagnosis of dogs with type I CEH is younger than is mean age of dogs diagnosed with type IV CEH. By the age of 9 years, two thirds of intact bitches had some degree of cystic endometrial Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Fundamental Behaviors of Dogs

The influence of human culture on the domestication of dogs evolved into man being the owner and the animal belonging to man, just like any object that can be bought, sold or even traded. This type of relation, even though replete with affection and positive interactions, began in the domestication stage and remains true today. The domestication process involves changes in morphologic characteristics and also drastically changes some aspects of behavior. When dogs (“wolf”) were wild, they had characteristics and needs that were suppressed and eliminated by human requirements to serve people. According to Hemmer (1990), the animal began to lose its original “perceptual world”. Behaviors such as rapid stress reactions for survival in the wild were overshadowed by characteristics such as docility, less fear and more tolerance of stress reactions. Domestication has led breeds to underdevelop certain important behavior traits such as intra- and inter-specific social behavior. The morphologic consequences are strictly related to the consequences of the behavior. Different physical traits exhibited in behavioral signaling among conspecifics were rendered impossible because of morphologic modification. An example is Read more […]

The Eye As An Optical Device

A primary function of the eye is to form a crisply focused image on the retina. The optical components through which light travels to reach the retina are the cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous body. For proper image formation these components must remain transparent and maintain precise relationships to one another. One of the exciting areas of ongoing research is attempting to define the mechanisms whereby these relationships are maintained during growth of the eye. A point source of light located at the visual horizon emits rays that are convergent, divergent, and parallel relative to the eye. At a great distance only rays that are essentially parallel will enter the pupil of the dog. Divergent and convergent rays will pass peripheral to the pupillary aperture. If the eye is focused at infinity (is emmetropic), parallel rays will be refracted and imaged as a point on the dog’s retina. If the dog’s eye is ametropic (either myopic or hyperopic), the rays will not be properly imaged on the retina and will form a blurred circle. As an object is brought closer and closer to the dog’s eye, the percentage of divergent rays entering the pupil will increase, requiring an increase in refractive power of the Read more […]