Tag Archives: Pug

Distemper in Dogs

Distemper in dogs have been mentioned in 1824 This scourge to the canine race, now so general and common, does not appear to have been known a century ago; and even yet, throughout the European continent, it is described rather as an occasional epidemic which visits the different countries every three or four years, than as a fixed complaint, like the measles or hooping cough in the human (In opposition to this late appearance of the distemper, it has been conjectured that it was not unknown to the antients, and was by them called the Angina, being one of three diseases to which dogs, according to them, were liable; Madness and Podagra forming the otber two. But an attentive examination of the symptoms, as detailed by Aristotle, Aelian, and such other antient authors as have left us their observations on the canine race, will clearly show that the distemper, as it is known among us, was unknown to them. Their angina appears to have been an accidental epidemic, which confined its attacks almost wholly to the throat, producing faucial imposthumes, like strangles in horses, or quinsy in the human; but the grand characteristic, of primary and continued discharge from the nasal mucous membranes, is wholly unnoticed. — Read more […]


History and Development The Pekingese is an oriental breed and consequently much of its history is steeped in the mystery that surrounds the Hast. An ancient breed, the Pekingese appears in many early Chinese paintings, usually at play. One painting dates back to 1720, but long before this the symbolic Fo Dogs and Kylins were popular as works of art and these greatly resemble the Pekingese. The different breeds from the East must all have a common origin with the Pekingese. Paintings as far back as 900 A.D. show a rather short-haired, pug-faced dog, as well as longer-haired breeds, rather like the Shih Tzu. There was also the spaniel type, which was higher on leg and of lighter build and much more dainty. Probably inter-breeding between all types gave the Chinese the compact little Pekingese which became such a firm favorite at the Chinese Court. Succeeding dynasties favored the Pekingese in varying degrees. Out of favor in the Ming Dynasty, they were still bred and cared for by the court but were not granted the high honors of the previous Mongol reign. With the advent of the Manchus in 1644, the dogs again became treasured possessions and were especially favored by the Empress Tsu Hai. Pekingese were little Read more […]

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

History and Development Whatever its origin, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is the direct descendant of the small Toy Spaniels depicted in paintings of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Toy Spaniels were quite common as pets among the ladies of the Tudor Court but, in England, it was the Stuarts who showed so much fondness for these little dogs that they were given Royal title of King Charles Spaniels. Rarely was Charles II seen without several of these dogs at his heels and Samuel Pepys, the diarist, complained bitterly that at council meetings the King would play with his dogs rather than attend to council business. John Evelyn, writing in his diary, said: “He took delight in having a number of little Spaniels follow him and lie in his bedchamber where he suffered the bitches to puppy and give suck, which rendered it very offensive”. On the night on which the King died, several of these dogs lay by the fire in the next room, creeping in to their master when the door was left open. One of the earliest paintings showing a Cavalier type Spaniel is Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian, in the National Gallery in London; it was painted about 1523. When William of Orange became William III of England, the Pug dog Read more […]

Hypersensitivity Skin Disorders

Clinical hypersensitivity disorders have been classified by Gel and Coombes. The following description is simplified since in many instances complex interactions occur simultaneously. Type 1 (immediate, anaphylactic) genetically susceptible individuals inhale (absorb percutaneously?) allergens such as pollen and house dust, and produce immunoglobulin E (IgE), which fixes to tissue mast cells and blood basophils the allergen subsequently comes into contact with its specific IgE, leading to the release of vasoactive amines, which cause tissue damage examples are urticaria, angio-oedema, atopy, drug eruption and flea-bite hypersensitivity Type 2 (cytotoxic) IgG or IgM with or without complement binds to complete antigens on body tissues the antigen—antibody reaction causes cell lysis examples are pemphigus, pemphigoid, cold agglutinin disease and dnig eruption Type 3 (immune complex) circulating antigen-antibody complexes fix complement and are deposited in blood vessel walls these complexes attract neutrophils; proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released from the neutrophils produce tissue damage examples are systemic lupus erythematosus and bacterial hypersensitivity Type 4 (delayed) incomplete Read more […]

The Conjunctiva

Developmental Abnormalities Dermoids. Dermoids are congenital masses of tissue containing skin, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. They most commonly occur in the temporal perilimbal conjunctiva and may also involve the eyelid margin or the cornea (). Dermoids often cause ocular irritation and epiphora. Treatment involves careful dissection of the dermoid from the surrounding conjunctiva and the underlying sclera. If the cornea is involved, a superficial keratectomy is also indicated. Aberrant Canthal Dermis. Aberrant canthal dermis is characterized by long hairs, which extend from the medial canthal caruncle onto the corneal surface. The hairs wick the tears from the eye onto the eyelid, causing facial staining in the puppy or kitten. If the condition is allowed to persist, the cilia may cause corneal pigmentation. The condition is most frequently seen in the Lhasa apso, Shih Tzu, Pekingese, poodle, and Chinese pug dog breeds and infrequently in the Persian cat. Cryotherapy is a simple, effective method of destroying the hair follicles within the caruncle. The caruncle may also be surgically excised (). A sliding conjunctival flap is created by bluntly undermining the surrounding conjunctiva. The flap is then Read more […]

The Cornea

Congenital Abnormalities Comeal Opacities. The cornea of the newborn puppy or kitten is a light blue color; or at least the cornea is less clear than that of the adult. In 2 to 4 weeks, corneal clearing is sufficient to permit ophthalmoscopic examination. It is not unusual to observe multifocal or diffuse faint white opacities in the corneas of young puppies and kittens. The opacities represent superficial foci of edema, and most are self-limiting. The cause of these opacities is unknown. Therapy is not necessary unless the opacities are accompanied by a mucopurulent discharge, in which case topical ophthalmic antimicrobial preparations may be applied. Animals born with their eyelids open often have diffuse corneal edema that clears in 14 to 18 days. Because reflex lacrimation is absent at birth, the exposed cornea is subject to desiccation and infection and can be avoided by frequent application of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial ointment every 3 or 4 hours until the animal is 10 to 12 days old. Cats with lysosomal storage diseases may develop corneal opacities related to the accumulation of polysaccharides within the endothelial cells and fibroblasts of the cornea. Fine granular deposits in the corneal stroma may Read more […]

The Upper Airway: Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinus, Nasopharyngeal, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Diseases

Sneezing and nasal discharge are the most common clinical signs of nasal cavity disease. Owners of puppies or kittens that are quickly cleaned by their mother or that are fastidious about licking any appearing discharge may overlook a nasal discharge. Viral disease or environmental irritants usually cause a serous or mucoid discharge; bacterial disease causes a purulent or mucopurulent discharge. Sneezing is usually prominent in acute disease but wanes with chronicity. Acute viral diseases sometimes cause enough destruction of the nasal epithelium to obliterate the sneeze reflex, despite the presence of nasal discharge and other upper respiratory signs. Less common signs of nasal disease include stertorous breathing, pawing or rubbing at the nose or mouth, facial pain, facial deformity, ocular discharge, exophthalmos, or fetid breath. Because clinical signs related to the nose and sinuses can be manifestations of oral, pharyngeal, airway, and pulmonary disease, these areas should be carefully inspected. Evaluation of the nasal cavity should include oral and dental examination, radiographs of the nasal cavity, rhinoscopy, and visual examination of the nasopharynx and internal nares (). Pharyngeal and laryngeal disease Read more […]


The bronchial tree (arbor bronchialis) () begins at the bifurcation of the trachea by the formation of a right and a left principal bronchus (bronchus principals [dexter et sinister]). Each principal bronchus divides into lobar bronchi  (bronchi lobares), formerly secondary bronchi, which is the basis for the identification of the lung lobes. These supply the various lobes of the lung and are named according to the lobe supplied. Within the lobe of the lung the lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi (bronchi segmentales), which are sometimes referred to as tertiary bronchi. The segmental bronchi and the lung tissue that they ventilate are known as bronchopulmonary segments (segmenta bronchopulmonalia). Ishaq (1980) studied 37 pairs of dog lungs and suggested a system for designating the bronchi. Schlesinger and McFadden (1981) discuss the morphometry of the proximal bronchial tree in six mammalian species. Adjacent bronchopulmonary segments normally communicate with each other in the dog. Various injection and reconstruction techniques have been employed to delineate these segments in the dog (). For bronchoscopic purposes Amis and McKiernan (1986) described a system of letters and numbers to identify lobar, segmental, Read more […]

Central vestibular diseases

Degenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders are inborn errors of metabolism in vhich specific deficiencies of degradative enzymes cause substrate accumulation and result in cellular and clinical dysfunction. Neurodegenerative disorders are diseases associated with an abnormality in the metabolic pathway that leads to early death of the neuron. Several of these conditions can present with ataxia and incoordination suggestive of vestibular disease. () Anomalous diseases Chiari-like malformations Chiari-like malformations are congenital defects characterized by caudal displacement of part of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum. This occurs as a result of occipital bone dysplasia causing the caudal fossa to become abnormal in size or shape. This malformation can cause compression of the brainstem and cerebellum, and result in signs of central vestibular disease. Neoplastic diseases Brain tumours Of the primary brain tumours seen in dogs, meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas have a site predilection for the caudal lossa. As such, vestibular signs are commonly encountered in affected animals. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts are occasionally Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Spinal cord diseases

Spinal cord diseases that can cause tetraparesis are listed in Spinal cord diseases that can cause tetraparesis. Spinal cord diseases that can cause tetraparesis. Mechanism of disease Specific diseases Degenerative Inherited neurodegenerative diseases Calcinosis circumscripta [] Cervical stenotic myelopathy (Wobbler syndrome) [] Degenerative myelopathy [] Intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I and 11) [] Spinal synovial cysts [] Anomalous Atlantoaxial instability [] Dermoid sinus [] Osteochondromatosis [] Syringohydromyelia [] Vertebral and spinal cord anomalies [] Neoplastic Extradural: metastasis; vertebral tumours (sarcomas, plasma cell tumours); lymphoma [] Intradural-extramedullary: meningiomas; nerve sheath tumours; metastasis [] Intramedullary: ependymomas; gliomas; metastasis; round cell tumours [] Inflammatory Discospondylitis / osteomyelitis / physitis [] Empyema[] Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis [] Infectious meningoencephalomyelitis [] Steroid-responsive meningitis — arteritis [] Idiopathic Arachnoid cysts [] Toxic Tetanus [] Trauma Vertebral fractures / luxations [] Epidural Read more […]