Tag Archives: Pug

Hypersensitivity Skin Disorders

Clinical hypersensitivity disorders have been classified by Gel and Coombes. The following description is simplified since in many instances complex interactions occur simultaneously. Type 1 (immediate, anaphylactic) genetically susceptible individuals inhale (absorb percutaneously?) allergens such as pollen and house dust, and produce immunoglobulin E (IgE), which fixes to tissue mast cells and blood basophils the allergen subsequently comes into contact with its specific IgE, leading to the release of vasoactive amines, which cause tissue damage examples are urticaria, angio-oedema, atopy, drug eruption and flea-bite hypersensitivity Type 2 (cytotoxic) IgG or IgM with or without complement binds to complete antigens on body tissues the antigen—antibody reaction causes cell lysis examples are pemphigus, pemphigoid, cold agglutinin disease and dnig eruption Type 3 (immune complex) circulating antigen-antibody complexes fix complement and are deposited in blood vessel walls these complexes attract neutrophils; proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released from the neutrophils produce tissue damage examples are systemic lupus erythematosus and bacterial hypersensitivity Type 4 (delayed) incomplete Read more […]

The Conjunctiva

Developmental Abnormalities Dermoids. Dermoids are congenital masses of tissue containing skin, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. They most commonly occur in the temporal perilimbal conjunctiva and may also involve the eyelid margin or the cornea (). Dermoids often cause ocular irritation and epiphora. Treatment involves careful dissection of the dermoid from the surrounding conjunctiva and the underlying sclera. If the cornea is involved, a superficial keratectomy is also indicated. Aberrant Canthal Dermis. Aberrant canthal dermis is characterized by long hairs, which extend from the medial canthal caruncle onto the corneal surface. The hairs wick the tears from the eye onto the eyelid, causing facial staining in the puppy or kitten. If the condition is allowed to persist, the cilia may cause corneal pigmentation. The condition is most frequently seen in the Lhasa apso, Shih Tzu, Pekingese, poodle, and Chinese pug dog breeds and infrequently in the Persian cat. Cryotherapy is a simple, effective method of destroying the hair follicles within the caruncle. The caruncle may also be surgically excised (). A sliding conjunctival flap is created by bluntly undermining the surrounding conjunctiva. The flap is then Read more […]

The Cornea

Congenital Abnormalities Comeal Opacities. The cornea of the newborn puppy or kitten is a light blue color; or at least the cornea is less clear than that of the adult. In 2 to 4 weeks, corneal clearing is sufficient to permit ophthalmoscopic examination. It is not unusual to observe multifocal or diffuse faint white opacities in the corneas of young puppies and kittens. The opacities represent superficial foci of edema, and most are self-limiting. The cause of these opacities is unknown. Therapy is not necessary unless the opacities are accompanied by a mucopurulent discharge, in which case topical ophthalmic antimicrobial preparations may be applied. Animals born with their eyelids open often have diffuse corneal edema that clears in 14 to 18 days. Because reflex lacrimation is absent at birth, the exposed cornea is subject to desiccation and infection and can be avoided by frequent application of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial ointment every 3 or 4 hours until the animal is 10 to 12 days old. Cats with lysosomal storage diseases may develop corneal opacities related to the accumulation of polysaccharides within the endothelial cells and fibroblasts of the cornea. Fine granular deposits in the corneal stroma may Read more […]

The Upper Airway: Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinus, Nasopharyngeal, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Diseases

Sneezing and nasal discharge are the most common clinical signs of nasal cavity disease. Owners of puppies or kittens that are quickly cleaned by their mother or that are fastidious about licking any appearing discharge may overlook a nasal discharge. Viral disease or environmental irritants usually cause a serous or mucoid discharge; bacterial disease causes a purulent or mucopurulent discharge. Sneezing is usually prominent in acute disease but wanes with chronicity. Acute viral diseases sometimes cause enough destruction of the nasal epithelium to obliterate the sneeze reflex, despite the presence of nasal discharge and other upper respiratory signs. Less common signs of nasal disease include stertorous breathing, pawing or rubbing at the nose or mouth, facial pain, facial deformity, ocular discharge, exophthalmos, or fetid breath. Because clinical signs related to the nose and sinuses can be manifestations of oral, pharyngeal, airway, and pulmonary disease, these areas should be carefully inspected. Evaluation of the nasal cavity should include oral and dental examination, radiographs of the nasal cavity, rhinoscopy, and visual examination of the nasopharynx and internal nares (). Pharyngeal and laryngeal disease Read more […]

Bronchi

The bronchial tree (arbor bronchialis) () begins at the bifurcation of the trachea by the formation of a right and a left principal bronchus (bronchus principals [dexter et sinister]). Each principal bronchus divides into lobar bronchi  (bronchi lobares), formerly secondary bronchi, which is the basis for the identification of the lung lobes. These supply the various lobes of the lung and are named according to the lobe supplied. Within the lobe of the lung the lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi (bronchi segmentales), which are sometimes referred to as tertiary bronchi. The segmental bronchi and the lung tissue that they ventilate are known as bronchopulmonary segments (segmenta bronchopulmonalia). Ishaq (1980) studied 37 pairs of dog lungs and suggested a system for designating the bronchi. Schlesinger and McFadden (1981) discuss the morphometry of the proximal bronchial tree in six mammalian species. Adjacent bronchopulmonary segments normally communicate with each other in the dog. Various injection and reconstruction techniques have been employed to delineate these segments in the dog (). For bronchoscopic purposes Amis and McKiernan (1986) described a system of letters and numbers to identify lobar, segmental, Read more […]

Central vestibular diseases

Degenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders are inborn errors of metabolism in vhich specific deficiencies of degradative enzymes cause substrate accumulation and result in cellular and clinical dysfunction. Neurodegenerative disorders are diseases associated with an abnormality in the metabolic pathway that leads to early death of the neuron. Several of these conditions can present with ataxia and incoordination suggestive of vestibular disease. () Anomalous diseases Chiari-like malformations Chiari-like malformations are congenital defects characterized by caudal displacement of part of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum. This occurs as a result of occipital bone dysplasia causing the caudal fossa to become abnormal in size or shape. This malformation can cause compression of the brainstem and cerebellum, and result in signs of central vestibular disease. Neoplastic diseases Brain tumours Of the primary brain tumours seen in dogs, meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas have a site predilection for the caudal lossa. As such, vestibular signs are commonly encountered in affected animals. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts are occasionally Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Spinal cord diseases

Spinal cord diseases that can cause tetraparesis are listed in Spinal cord diseases that can cause tetraparesis. Spinal cord diseases that can cause tetraparesis. Mechanism of disease Specific diseases Degenerative Inherited neurodegenerative diseases Calcinosis circumscripta [] Cervical stenotic myelopathy (Wobbler syndrome) [] Degenerative myelopathy [] Intervertebral disc disease (Hansen type I and 11) [] Spinal synovial cysts [] Anomalous Atlantoaxial instability [] Dermoid sinus [] Osteochondromatosis [] Syringohydromyelia [] Vertebral and spinal cord anomalies [] Neoplastic Extradural: metastasis; vertebral tumours (sarcomas, plasma cell tumours); lymphoma [] Intradural-extramedullary: meningiomas; nerve sheath tumours; metastasis [] Intramedullary: ependymomas; gliomas; metastasis; round cell tumours [] Inflammatory Discospondylitis / osteomyelitis / physitis [] Empyema[] Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis [] Infectious meningoencephalomyelitis [] Steroid-responsive meningitis — arteritis [] Idiopathic Arachnoid cysts [] Toxic Tetanus [] Trauma Vertebral fractures / luxations [] Epidural Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Atlantoaxial instability Clinical signs: Onset of signs in dogs with the congenital form of the disease usually occurs in young animals (<2 years of age), though problems can develop at any age. Signs can develop acutely or gradually, and waxing and waning of signs is often reported – presumably a reflection of instability at the atlantoaxial junction causing repeated injury to the spinal cord. Signs include neck pain (variably present), ataxia, tetraparesis, and postural-reaction and conscious pro-prioceptive deficits with normal to increased muscle tone and myotatic reflexes in all four legs. In severe cases, animals can present with tetraplegia and difficulty in breathing and they may die acutely as a result of respiratory failure. Pathogenesis: The atlas (first cervical vertebra) and axis (second cervical vertebra) are bound together by ligaments that run from the dens of the axis to the atlas and the skull, over the dens binding it to the floor of the atlas (the transverse ligament) and between the dorsal lamina of the atlas and the dorsal spinous process of the axis (). The dens is a bony projection from the cranial aspect of the body of the axis and develops from a separate growth plate. Subluxation of Read more […]

Bone Eye Troubles

Diseases Of Different Organs A correspondent whose letter appeared in the issue of 4th January refers to the note on this subject and exprsses a wish that had gone more fully into details instead of merely stating simple facts which in the writer’s view, every amateur wuld be acquainted with the correspondent referes to various Toy breeds, like Pekingese and Toy Spaniels, which have large protruding eyes, and suffer from watering and other troubles. To point out at the start that these notes are intended for “novices” in dog keeping, and it is not desirable that those who are inexperienced in such matters should be encouraged to undertake treatment of diseases of such a delicated organ as the eye when even experienced fanciers may very well shrink from amateur treatment. There is no doublt that we want at the present time some veterinary surgeons who have made a special study of the eye and its complaints. We do not myself profess to be at all expert in the knowledge of eye treatment, and any advice We can give must of necessity therefore be to a large extent amateurish, and only intended to apply to simple matters which can be safely left to amateus to doctor at home. Such matters as deep-seated ulcers on the pupil Read more […]

Eye Related Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Eye Diseases A large number of conditions affect the dog’s eyes and range from retinal changes to problems associated with the structure at the front of the eye. Deeper changes are rarely immediately obvious; the effects are mainly in a degree of vision difficulty, apparent as reduced visual acuity or disturbed vision. Distorted vision presents many difficulties as the dog may see objects in a different place and fail to avoid obstructions. Professional attention is necessary. The front chamber and outer covering of the eye is subject to injury and penetration by foreign bodies. Occasionally there is hemorrhage into the front chamber following an accident, resulting in a ‘curtain’ of blood in front of the lens. Although most cases resolve, urgent attention is needed to prevent blindness. Most eye injuries and infections cause inflammation and discharge, with the eye firmly closed. Veterinary examination is urgent; food should be withheld as the dog will probably have to be anaesthetized before the extent of the damage can be explored. Severe inflammation of the outer eye surface is known as Keratitis and can arise from injury or infectious disease. Occasionally, ulceration follows which Read more […]