Tag Archives: Pomeranian


History and Development The Pomeranian is a breed of dog which can claim great antiquity. Throughout history it has been used for many purposes, but the type has remained unchanged. Depicted in many relics of the Roman era, the essential points of shape of head, carriage of ear and plume, body and coat differ but slightly from today. There seems little doubt that the modern Pomeranian is of central European origin and that a few of the early specimens brought into England came from Pomerania, Germany, and for tins reason were given the name Pomeranian. Although there were several imported into Britain from time to time, the breed made little impression until the year 1870. These early imports were large dogs of up to 30 lbs, in weight but the size was rapidly reduced, until in 1896 Pom classes at shows were divided by weight, 8 lbs, and over and under 8 lbs. In 1915, the Kennel Club withdrew Challenge Certificates for the overweights; that is, dogs over 8 lbs., and today the most popular size is 3½ to 5½ lbs. The whites were the first to be exhibited with success, and it was not until 1890 that blacks were exhibited. The progress of the breed was at first slow. However, in 1891 the first meeting of the Read more […]

Dental Disease and Care

An oral examination should be performed each time a puppy or kitten is presented. Many pathologic or potentially pathologic conditions can be detected at an early age and corrective measures taken. Introducing the pet owner to the concept of oral home care and regular professional dental prophylaxis are the two most important responsibilities of the veterinarian with regard to dental disease care and prevention. Tooth Morphology There are three types of teeth in the deciduous dentition of puppies and kittens: incisor (I), canine (C), and premolar (P); a fourth type, molar (M), is found in the permanent dentition. Each type is designed to be self-cleaning in the non-crowded scissors occlusion, when the animal eats a natural diet, that is, catches its prey. Each tooth type serves a specific function. Incisor teeth are for grooming and nibbling, canine teeth are for grasping and tearing, premolars are for shearing, and molars are for grinding. The cat, a true carnivore, has no occlusal surface on the mandibular molar. The maxillary molar is small and vestigial in the cat (). Each tooth is covered with enamel, the hardest body substance. The bulk of the tooth is dentin, a living tissue that continues to be deposited Read more […]

Disorders of the Puerperium

1) What does a normal bitch look like in the days following whelping? When should I worry that something’s wrong? Normal bitches pass an odorless, reddish brown to green vulvar discharge for up to 3 weeks after whelping. Body temperature may be slightly elevated for a couple of days but never should be above 102.5° F. The mammary glands should be full but not painful. It is normal to see milk expressed from several openings at the end of every nipple. Abnormalities include creamy, malodorous vulvar discharge; one or more swollen and painful mammary glands; decreased appetite and thirst; disorientation; and neglect of the pups. 2) My bitch finished whelping in the “wee hours” of the morning. Does she need to go into the veterinarian for a “cleanout” shot? Not if she has live pups that are nursing. The nursing pups stimulate frequent release of small amounts of oxytocin, which causes milk letdown and uterine contractions. This is better for the bitch than our giving her one big shot of oxytocin. The puerperal period is that time from whelping to complete involution and repair of the uterus. This period usually lasts about 12 weeks. By the end of the puerperal period, the pups are weaned, the uterus Read more […]


Physiology and Endocrinology The eggs released by the bitch are fertilized in the uterine tubes and move into the uterus 8 to 9 days after ovulation. The conceptus implants and the placenta begin to be formed 16 to 18 days after ovulation. High concentrations of progesterone must be present throughout pregnancy. Progesterone during pregnancy decreases uterine contractility; stimulates secretions of the endometrial glands, which presumably provide nutrients to maintain the conceptus before implantation; and stimulates mammary development. Prolactin concentrations begin to rise at midgestation. Concentration of relaxin, released from the placenta, also rises beginning at midgestation (). The body of the bitch responds to the presence of the enlarged uterus and developing fetuses with processes designed to maintain function in the bitch while promoting development and growth of the puppies. Physiologic changes in the bitch that occur during normal pregnancy include the following: • Increased heart rate • Increased packed cell volume (% of the blood made up of red blood cells) • Increased oxygen consumption • Slower gastric emptying time • Increased blood flow to the kidney Superfecundation Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Atlantoaxial instability Clinical signs: Onset of signs in dogs with the congenital form of the disease usually occurs in young animals (<2 years of age), though problems can develop at any age. Signs can develop acutely or gradually, and waxing and waning of signs is often reported – presumably a reflection of instability at the atlantoaxial junction causing repeated injury to the spinal cord. Signs include neck pain (variably present), ataxia, tetraparesis, and postural-reaction and conscious pro-prioceptive deficits with normal to increased muscle tone and myotatic reflexes in all four legs. In severe cases, animals can present with tetraplegia and difficulty in breathing and they may die acutely as a result of respiratory failure. Pathogenesis: The atlas (first cervical vertebra) and axis (second cervical vertebra) are bound together by ligaments that run from the dens of the axis to the atlas and the skull, over the dens binding it to the floor of the atlas (the transverse ligament) and between the dorsal lamina of the atlas and the dorsal spinous process of the axis (). The dens is a bony projection from the cranial aspect of the body of the axis and develops from a separate growth plate. Subluxation of Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Toy Dogs

Affenpinschers Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Brussels Griffon Shoulder dislocation Cavalier King Charles Spaniels Patella luxation; Episodic weakness and collapse, a rare, inherited disorder Chihuahuas (Long and Smooth coats) Shoulders dislocation; Patella luxation, medial or lateral; Hypoplasia of dens, which produces atlantoaxial subluxation, causing neck pain and quadriplegia Chinese Cresteds Medial patella luation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease English Toy Spaniels (Blenheim/Prince Charles and King Charles/Ruby) Patella luxation, medial or lateral can occur with medial the most common, Congenital Femoral Shift Italian Greyhounds Predisposed to forelimb fractures Japanese Chin Dwarfism Maltese Patella luxatin Miniature Pinschers Shoulders dislocation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Epiphyseal dysplasia; Decreased long-bone growth; OIsteopenia Papillons Patella luxation Perkingese Hypoplaisa of dense (Odontoid Process, an atlantoaxial subluxation, causes neck pain and quadriplegia); IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Swimmers syndrome; Atypical pannus; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Pomeranians Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Dwarfism; Read more […]

Canine Terminology – S

SABRE TAIL Tail carried like a sabre; semi-circle; German Shepherd Dog tail at rest is carried like a sabre. SABLE Black outer hairs over a light-coloured coat. (Usually brown to light brown.) SADDLE A dark (usually black) marking over the back; from the location of a saddle as placed on a horse. SCAPULA The shoulder blade. SCREW TAIL A naturally occurring short tail that twists. SECOND THIGH Lower thigh; from stifle to hock joint. SEPTUM Line between nostrils. SHALLOW BRISKET Lack of depth of ribs. SHORT-BODIED Short between front of chest and rear of dog. SHORT-COUPLED Short space between last rib and pelvis. SHOULDERS Shoulder blade and supporting muscles. SHOULDER HEIGHT Height of a dog measured from the withers to the ground. SICKLE-HOCKED Inability to straighten the hock joint on the back reach of the hind leg; dog moves with a permanent angle in hock joint. SICKLE TAIL Tip of tail vertically above root, but tail bent as a semi-circle; tail carried out and up in a semi-circle (shaped like a sickle). Read more […]

Canine Terminology – P Q

PACE A gait; two right feet on the ground and two left feet in the air followed by two left feet on the ground and two right feet in the air; in some breeds the ‘pace’ is acceptable. PADDING Flapping; the front feet flap up (opposite of hackney action where the toe points downward); more common in short legged breeds, such as Dachshunds. Also hitting the pad on the ground prior to the normal full forward swing of the front leg. PADDLING Moving the front legs like a canoe paddle motion; a rotary motion; when the front feet move forward they have a somewhat circular motion. PADS Tough soft material on underside of dog’s feet; pads absorb shock. PARTI-COLOUR A coat with patches of two or more colours; three colours are usually designated as tricoloured. PASTERN The region between the wrist and toes on forelegs; pastern joint is at the wrist (carpus); down in pasterns is an excessive forward sloping pastern for the breed; knuckled over occurs when pastern joint bends forwards and the pastern slopes backwards. PATELLA Kneecap. PEAR-SHAPED Shaped like a pear; body of a Bulldog is pear shaped. PELVIS Read more […]

Anatomy Of The Dog: What is a Breed

A few months ago, the United Kennel Club added nine breeds, to its registry, bringing its total to 160. Last month, the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Eskimo to its miscellaneous group, the first step towards official recognition as an AKC breed. The new UKC breeds are Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen, Canaan Dog, English Toy Spaniel, Finnish Spitz, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Manchester Terrier, Polish Owczarek Nizinny, Tibetan Spaniel and Shiba, all but the Nizziny are recognized by the AKC, some of them for many years, and AKC’s newest, the American Eskimo, has been a UKC breed for a long time. Both registries seem to be in race to add new breeds to their lists, a race that some critics say is an effort to increase the treasuries of both organizations. This rush, along with the apparent whimsical assignment of breed status in some cases, an increase in breed-specific laws in the last few years, and the call by animal rights advocates for a ban on breeding pure bred dogs, has caused some to wonder about the definition of breed. So what is a breed? Webster’s Desk Dictionary of the English Language defines a breed as “a homogeneous grouping Read more […]