Tag Archives: Pointer

The Eye

The Ophthalmic Examination History A complete ophthalmic history is an essential part of every puppy’s or kitten’s examination. Owners may be asked questions regarding the animal’s signalment, history of the presenting complaint(s), and any pertinent medical or ophthalmic diseases in the animal’s family histories. Other historical information that may be included is the animal’s vaccination status, diet, environment, and exposure to other animals. Previous therapy should be identified to prevent repetition of an unsuccessful regimen. Procedure Ophthalmic examination should be performed in a quiet area. Puppies usually require only gentle but firm restraint of the head. Very young puppies cooperate nicely when held in an assistant’s arms. Kittens can also be gently restrained and are less likely to demonstrate the constant ocular motion typical of puppies. Uncooperative puppies or kittens may be placed in a towel or restraint bag. Assessment of ocular abnormalities such as orbital swelling, squinting, or ocular discharge can be done in a well-lighted room, but actual ophthalmoscopic examination should be done with the lights dimmed. A bright source of focal illumination is required; the Finoff transilluminator on Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever;┬áSaint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or┬áSaint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

External Genitalia

The external genitalia of the female dog include the pudendum femininum (vulva), clitoris, and urethra feminina (). External Genitalia: Pudendum Femininum The pudendum femininum (vulva) lies caudal to the vestibule and consists of two lips, labii (labium pudendi [vulvae]) joined dorsally and ventrally by commissures (commissuura labiorum dorsalis et ventralis) and separated by a narrow cleft, the rima pudendi. The labia form the external boundary of the vulva and in part are homologous with the scrotum of the male. The labia are soft and pliable, being composed of fibrous and elastic connective tissue, striated muscle fibers (m. constrictor vulvae), and an abundance of fat. The vaginal processes, containing the round ligaments of the uterus, often end in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the labia. The distance between the dorsal commissure of the labia and the anus is 8 to 9 cm. The dorsal commissure lies at or slightly ventral to the dorsal plane passing through the symphysis pelvis. The ventral portions of the labia, with their uniting commissure, form a pointed projection extending ventrally and caudally from the body, usually with a tuft of hair. External Genitalia: Clitoris The clitoris (), the homologue Read more […]

Attentional Nexus, Social Communication, and Control

Domestication has significantly improved the dog’s capacity to cope with stress and social uncertainty via the evolution of antistress and antiaggression capacities, enhanced attention and impulse-control abilities, exchange-mediated autonomic attunement, and the integration of a sophisticated SES consolidating these various changes (). As a result, the dog’s ability to explore and rapidly establish social relations under a positive expectancy of reward is generally ascendant to negative expectancies and the social aversion associated with dispersion and entrapment dynamics. Dogs appear to respond to the presence of a person as an intrinsically rewarding object, with social contact possessing both incentive significance and hedonic value. For many dogs, petting is not only calmative but is also restorative in nature (see Affection and Friendship). The mere presence of a person nearby activates antistress capacities that enhance a dog’s ability to cope with pain and stress. In addition to generally enjoying human social contact, dogs have evolved a proactive sociability that enables them to smooth over social tensions with conciliatory exchanges before they escalate into conflict. In short, dogs are developmentally organized Read more […]

Inflammatory diseases

Infectious meningitis / meningomyelitis Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and meningomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and the meninges) can cause severe spinal pain. Meningomyelitis, by definition, will also cause neurological deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most reliable antemortem diagnostic test available for identifying CNS inflammation; it often reveals an increase in the white blood cell number as well as protein elevations. A complete discussion of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of infectious CNS disease is presented in site. Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis Clinical signs: SRMA, also termed necrotizing vasculitis, juvenile polyarteritis syndrome, corticosteroid-responsive meningitis / meningomyelitis, aseptic suppurative meningitis, panarteritis and pain syndrome, is a non-infectious inflammatory condition reported in Beagles, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Boxers and German Short-Haired Pointers (), and urobably occurs in other breeds. Affected dogs are often young adults (8-18 months : d) but may be of any age, and are usually febrile and hyperaesthetic, with cervical rigidity and anorexia (). Neurological deficits can be seen in the chronic form of this disease. Read more […]

Sensory Abilities: Audition

The dog’s ear is composed of an outer ear (pinna), auditory canal, and various structures designed to convert sound waves into auditory information. The pinna gathers and directs sound into the auditory canal, where it is carried to the tympanic membrane or eardrum. The eardrum is an extremely sensitive and elastic membrane reacting to the slightest vibrations on its surface: movement of less than one-tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom can produce an audible sensation. The vibrations caused by the pressure of sound waves on the eardrum are mechanically conducted to the cochlea through the mediation of three tiny bones or ossicles: the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. The cochlea is a snail-like tubular structure that is innervated by the auditory nerve. Sound vibrations are passed into the cochlea at the oval window. These vibrations cause a fluid wave in the cochlear fluid, which causes a rippling effect against the surrounding basilar membrane. The vibratory displacement of the basilar membrane stimulates auditory receptors (called hair cells) to bend rhythmically, thereby evoking a nerve potential that is carried by individual fibers into the auditory nerve. Different sounds are distinguished by the specific Read more […]

The Dalmatian

The Dalmatian or Coach-Dog. (The Illustrated Book of the Dog (1881) by Vero Shaw, B. A.) In spite of the meagreness, in point of numbers, of the entries in the Dalmatian classes at most shows, few breeds attract more attention, simply we believe on account of the peculiarity of the markings, which are indispensable to success on the bench. It is so seldom that a really well-marked dog is seen following a carriage, that those unacquainted with the few really good ones which appear at shows invariably express great surprise and admiration at the regularity and brilliancy of their colouring. Of the antecedents of the Dalmatian it is extremely hard to speak with certainty, but it appears that the breed has altered but little since it was first illustrated in Bewick’s book on natural history, for in it appears an engraving of a dog who would be able to hold his own in high-class competition in the present day, and whose markings are sufficiently well developed to satisfy the most exacting of judges. Indeed, the almost geometrical exactness with which the spots are represented by Bewick impresses us with the idea that imagination greatly assisted nature in producing what he thought ought to be; his ideal, however exaggerated, Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Breed Action

In some breeds, admitting to the occurrence of an inherited defect is hazardous. Many breeders will openly condemn those who confess to having had a problem. It is as if breeders believe that silence will make the defect go away. This is clearly not the case, indeed, it is more likely that defects will spread. It is far more mature to admit to problems and collectively try to solve them. In the short term there may be heartache and economic loss for some, but in the long term the breed will benefit. It is crucial that breeders do not simply rely on pedigree data vvhen trying to evaluate problems. If a defect is recessive or suspected as being recessive, then the need is not only for five generation pedigrees of affected animals but also numbers of the litter born, their sexes status and, in the case of defects seen in later life, the age at examination. Given such data, a geneticist can help a breed examine the problem in depth. Given a list of “affected” pedigrees only on is in danger of “tracing the defect to a certain dog” without being aware that all pedigrees, affected and normal, trace to him. Any widely used stud might appear in “affected” pedigree without actually being the source of the problem though in some Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Sporting Dogs

Brittany Patella luxation: Hip dysplasia Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Clumber Spaniels Hip dysplasia Cocker Spaniels (American) Hip dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Anury (no tail, no caudal vertebrae); Brachury (short tail) Curly-Coated Retrievers Thyroid disorders; Calcium metabolic disorders; Juvenile osteoporosis. English Cocker Spaniels Swimmers syndrome (i.e. the inability to stand at four to six weeks of age) English Setters Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias English Springer Spaniels Hip dysplasia; Myasthenia gravis Field Spaniels Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Flat-Coated Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Patella luxation; Neoplasias German Shorthaired Pointers Pannus; Neoplasias German Wirehaired Pointers Hip dysplasia; Toe fractures Golden Retrievers Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of elbow; Muscular dystrophy; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias Gordon Setters Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Irish Setters Generalized myopathy (i.e. stiff gait and other difficulties); Carpal (pastern luxation; Read more […]