Tag Archives: Pointer

Distemper in Dogs

Distemper in dogs have been mentioned in 1824 This scourge to the canine race, now so general and common, does not appear to have been known a century ago; and even yet, throughout the European continent, it is described rather as an occasional epidemic which visits the different countries every three or four years, than as a fixed complaint, like the measles or hooping cough in the human (In opposition to this late appearance of the distemper, it has been conjectured that it was not unknown to the antients, and was by them called the Angina, being one of three diseases to which dogs, according to them, were liable; Madness and Podagra forming the otber two. But an attentive examination of the symptoms, as detailed by Aristotle, Aelian, and such other antient authors as have left us their observations on the canine race, will clearly show that the distemper, as it is known among us, was unknown to them. Their angina appears to have been an accidental epidemic, which confined its attacks almost wholly to the throat, producing faucial imposthumes, like strangles in horses, or quinsy in the human; but the grand characteristic, of primary and continued discharge from the nasal mucous membranes, is wholly unnoticed. — Read more […]

Dachshund

History and Development It is certain that by chance, mutation and finally by recognized breeding, the Dachshund, or Teckel as it is known in Germany, has been evolved from the oldest known breeds of dog. In old German documents there is mention of the “Tracking Dog ‘ and of the Bibarhunt or predecessor of the Teckel. In 16th century documents repeated reference is made lo “Little Burrow Dog”, “Badger Dog” and “Dacksel”, and woodcuts of 1576 to 1582 show cross-bred dogs on lengthy Dachshund bodies. Ai the end of the 17th century the “Badger Fighter” is described as a “peculiar low crooked legged specie”, while in 1848 Teckels became well known to hunting historians of that period and were described as follows: A good looking Dachshund is long and low, the back arched, belly drawn up weasel fashion, chest deep, neck long and strong, canine teeth interlocking closely, the eye expressive and spirited, the tail fine and not carried too gaily. The hind legs more still and straight than is usually the case in other dogs. Forelegs strong and muscular, not crooked but only with the broad strong feet turned outwards. Throughout the centuries our Dachshund was bred as a hunting dog. Definitely to the year 1848, the Smooth-haired Read more […]

Irish Terrier

History and Development Records of the Irish Terrier’s background are sparse. Early Greek writers mention a terrier of Great Britain which had apparently been cultivated for many generations and which was not found elsewhere in Europe, and there is direct evidence that a breed of “wire-haired” black and tan terriers existed in Britain over 200 years ago and were used for (ox and otter hunting and for destroying vermin. The Welsh Terrier fanciers claim this terrier as the progenitor of their breed. Such terriers were also found in the Westmorland hills, but these were shorter on the leg, and have since been accepted as Lakeland Terriers. This old wire-haired black and tan terrier also was concerned in the origin of the Irish Terrier; and there were around Cork and Ballymena in Ireland, a larger strain of wheaten terrier, w inch also played a pan, a much racier type with longer legs and all one color. The confirmation of these early breed influences was seen among the early show Irish Terriers, when litters commonly contained some black and tan puppies. At the Dublin show in 1874, there were classes for both large and small Irish Terriers – over 9 lbs. and under 9 lbs. – all pointers to the fact that these terrier Read more […]

The Eye

The Ophthalmic Examination History A complete ophthalmic history is an essential part of every puppy’s or kitten’s examination. Owners may be asked questions regarding the animal’s signalment, history of the presenting complaint(s), and any pertinent medical or ophthalmic diseases in the animal’s family histories. Other historical information that may be included is the animal’s vaccination status, diet, environment, and exposure to other animals. Previous therapy should be identified to prevent repetition of an unsuccessful regimen. Procedure Ophthalmic examination should be performed in a quiet area. Puppies usually require only gentle but firm restraint of the head. Very young puppies cooperate nicely when held in an assistant’s arms. Kittens can also be gently restrained and are less likely to demonstrate the constant ocular motion typical of puppies. Uncooperative puppies or kittens may be placed in a towel or restraint bag. Assessment of ocular abnormalities such as orbital swelling, squinting, or ocular discharge can be done in a well-lighted room, but actual ophthalmoscopic examination should be done with the lights dimmed. A bright source of focal illumination is required; the Finoff transilluminator on Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

External Genitalia

The external genitalia of the female dog include the pudendum femininum (vulva), clitoris, and urethra feminina (). External Genitalia: Pudendum Femininum The pudendum femininum (vulva) lies caudal to the vestibule and consists of two lips, labii (labium pudendi [vulvae]) joined dorsally and ventrally by commissures (commissuura labiorum dorsalis et ventralis) and separated by a narrow cleft, the rima pudendi. The labia form the external boundary of the vulva and in part are homologous with the scrotum of the male. The labia are soft and pliable, being composed of fibrous and elastic connective tissue, striated muscle fibers (m. constrictor vulvae), and an abundance of fat. The vaginal processes, containing the round ligaments of the uterus, often end in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the labia. The distance between the dorsal commissure of the labia and the anus is 8 to 9 cm. The dorsal commissure lies at or slightly ventral to the dorsal plane passing through the symphysis pelvis. The ventral portions of the labia, with their uniting commissure, form a pointed projection extending ventrally and caudally from the body, usually with a tuft of hair. External Genitalia: Clitoris The clitoris (), the homologue Read more […]

Attentional Nexus, Social Communication, and Control

Domestication has significantly improved the dog’s capacity to cope with stress and social uncertainty via the evolution of antistress and antiaggression capacities, enhanced attention and impulse-control abilities, exchange-mediated autonomic attunement, and the integration of a sophisticated SES consolidating these various changes (). As a result, the dog’s ability to explore and rapidly establish social relations under a positive expectancy of reward is generally ascendant to negative expectancies and the social aversion associated with dispersion and entrapment dynamics. Dogs appear to respond to the presence of a person as an intrinsically rewarding object, with social contact possessing both incentive significance and hedonic value. For many dogs, petting is not only calmative but is also restorative in nature (see Affection and Friendship). The mere presence of a person nearby activates antistress capacities that enhance a dog’s ability to cope with pain and stress. In addition to generally enjoying human social contact, dogs have evolved a proactive sociability that enables them to smooth over social tensions with conciliatory exchanges before they escalate into conflict. In short, dogs are developmentally organized Read more […]

Inflammatory diseases

Infectious meningitis / meningomyelitis Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and meningomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and the meninges) can cause severe spinal pain. Meningomyelitis, by definition, will also cause neurological deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most reliable antemortem diagnostic test available for identifying CNS inflammation; it often reveals an increase in the white blood cell number as well as protein elevations. A complete discussion of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of infectious CNS disease is presented in site. Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis Clinical signs: SRMA, also termed necrotizing vasculitis, juvenile polyarteritis syndrome, corticosteroid-responsive meningitis / meningomyelitis, aseptic suppurative meningitis, panarteritis and pain syndrome, is a non-infectious inflammatory condition reported in Beagles, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Boxers and German Short-Haired Pointers (), and urobably occurs in other breeds. Affected dogs are often young adults (8-18 months : d) but may be of any age, and are usually febrile and hyperaesthetic, with cervical rigidity and anorexia (). Neurological deficits can be seen in the chronic form of this disease. Read more […]

Sensory Abilities: Audition

The dog’s ear is composed of an outer ear (pinna), auditory canal, and various structures designed to convert sound waves into auditory information. The pinna gathers and directs sound into the auditory canal, where it is carried to the tympanic membrane or eardrum. The eardrum is an extremely sensitive and elastic membrane reacting to the slightest vibrations on its surface: movement of less than one-tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom can produce an audible sensation. The vibrations caused by the pressure of sound waves on the eardrum are mechanically conducted to the cochlea through the mediation of three tiny bones or ossicles: the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. The cochlea is a snail-like tubular structure that is innervated by the auditory nerve. Sound vibrations are passed into the cochlea at the oval window. These vibrations cause a fluid wave in the cochlear fluid, which causes a rippling effect against the surrounding basilar membrane. The vibratory displacement of the basilar membrane stimulates auditory receptors (called hair cells) to bend rhythmically, thereby evoking a nerve potential that is carried by individual fibers into the auditory nerve. Different sounds are distinguished by the specific Read more […]