Tag Archives: Pekingese

Dental Disease and Care

An oral examination should be performed each time a puppy or kitten is presented. Many pathologic or potentially pathologic conditions can be detected at an early age and corrective measures taken. Introducing the pet owner to the concept of oral home care and regular professional dental prophylaxis are the two most important responsibilities of the veterinarian with regard to dental disease care and prevention. Tooth Morphology There are three types of teeth in the deciduous dentition of puppies and kittens: incisor (I), canine (C), and premolar (P); a fourth type, molar (M), is found in the permanent dentition. Each type is designed to be self-cleaning in the non-crowded scissors occlusion, when the animal eats a natural diet, that is, catches its prey. Each tooth type serves a specific function. Incisor teeth are for grooming and nibbling, canine teeth are for grasping and tearing, premolars are for shearing, and molars are for grinding. The cat, a true carnivore, has no occlusal surface on the mandibular molar. The maxillary molar is small and vestigial in the cat (). Each tooth is covered with enamel, the hardest body substance. The bulk of the tooth is dentin, a living tissue that continues to be deposited Read more […]

The Eyelids

Developmental Abnormalities Eyelid Agenesis. Eyelid agenesis is a congenital defect of the eyelid margin resulting in absence of varying segments of the eyelid margin, palpebral conjunctiva, and fornices. The agenesis may be unilateral or bilateral, affecting the kitten more often than the puppy. The lateral one third or two thirds of the upper eyelid margin is most frequently involved. Keratitis and ulceration result from direct contact of the cornea with facial hairs and from exposure secondary to imperfect eyelid closure. Small eyelid defects may be successfully managed with ophthalmic lubricant ointments applied three to four times a day to reduce ocular irritation or by performing an entropion procedure to evert the offending hairs. If one third of the eyelid or more is missing, a pedicle graft from the inferior temporal aspect of the lower eyelid can be transposed to the upper eyelid. Distichiasis. Distichiasis is an extra row of eyelashes (cilia) that protrudes from the orifices of the meibomian glands onto the eyelid margin. The upper, lower, or both eyelids may be involved (). Congenital distichiasis often occurs in the English bulldog, toy poodle, miniature poodle, American cocker spaniel, golden retriever, Read more […]

The Conjunctiva

Developmental Abnormalities Dermoids. Dermoids are congenital masses of tissue containing skin, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. They most commonly occur in the temporal perilimbal conjunctiva and may also involve the eyelid margin or the cornea (). Dermoids often cause ocular irritation and epiphora. Treatment involves careful dissection of the dermoid from the surrounding conjunctiva and the underlying sclera. If the cornea is involved, a superficial keratectomy is also indicated. Aberrant Canthal Dermis. Aberrant canthal dermis is characterized by long hairs, which extend from the medial canthal caruncle onto the corneal surface. The hairs wick the tears from the eye onto the eyelid, causing facial staining in the puppy or kitten. If the condition is allowed to persist, the cilia may cause corneal pigmentation. The condition is most frequently seen in the Lhasa apso, Shih Tzu, Pekingese, poodle, and Chinese pug dog breeds and infrequently in the Persian cat. Cryotherapy is a simple, effective method of destroying the hair follicles within the caruncle. The caruncle may also be surgically excised (). A sliding conjunctival flap is created by bluntly undermining the surrounding conjunctiva. The flap is then Read more […]

The Cornea

Congenital Abnormalities Comeal Opacities. The cornea of the newborn puppy or kitten is a light blue color; or at least the cornea is less clear than that of the adult. In 2 to 4 weeks, corneal clearing is sufficient to permit ophthalmoscopic examination. It is not unusual to observe multifocal or diffuse faint white opacities in the corneas of young puppies and kittens. The opacities represent superficial foci of edema, and most are self-limiting. The cause of these opacities is unknown. Therapy is not necessary unless the opacities are accompanied by a mucopurulent discharge, in which case topical ophthalmic antimicrobial preparations may be applied. Animals born with their eyelids open often have diffuse corneal edema that clears in 14 to 18 days. Because reflex lacrimation is absent at birth, the exposed cornea is subject to desiccation and infection and can be avoided by frequent application of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial ointment every 3 or 4 hours until the animal is 10 to 12 days old. Cats with lysosomal storage diseases may develop corneal opacities related to the accumulation of polysaccharides within the endothelial cells and fibroblasts of the cornea. Fine granular deposits in the corneal stroma may Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Type I intervertebral disc disease

Clinical signs: Onset of neurological signs may be peracute (<1 hour), acute (<24 hours) or gradual (>24 hours). Dogs presented with peracute or acute thoracolumbar disc extrusions may manifest clinical signs of spinal shock or Schiff-Sherrington postures. These indicate acute and severe spinal cord injury but do not determine prognosis. The degree of neurological dysfunction is variable and affects prognosis. Clinical signs vary from spinal hyperaesthesia only to paraplegia with orwithoutpain perception. Dogs with back pain only are usually reluctant to walk and may show kyphosis. Dogs with back pain alone and no neurological deficits often have myelographic evidence of substantial spinal cord compression. Neuroanatomical localization for thoracolumbar lesions is determined by intact (T3-L3) or hyporeflexive (L4-S3) spinal reflexes and by the site of paraspinal hyperaesthesia. Asymmetrical neurological deficits may be less reliable for determining the site of disc extrusion. Pathogenesis: Hansen (1951) first classified intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) as type I and type II. Hansen type I IVDD is herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the annular fibres and extrusion of nuclear material into the Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Degenerative diseases

Breed-specific spinal cord disease These are degenerative CNS diseases that are often inherited. They cause progressive signs and usually involve many areas of the CNS. The most common neurodegenerative disease specific to the spinal cord is degenerative myelopathy of German Shepherd Dogs and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (with sporadic reports in other breeds). As the predominant signs of this disease are paraparesis and ataxia, it will be discussed in site. However, some neurodegenerative diseases initially cause tetraparesis and ataxia. A list of such diseases can be found in Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Many of these diseases also affect other areas of the CNS and therefore cause other (e.g. cerebellar) signs. Breed Disease German Shepherd Dog, Pembroke Corgi, others Degenerative myelopathy Rottweiler Leucoencephalomyelopathy Dalmatian, Labrador Retriever Leucodystrophy Miniature Poodle Demyelination Afghan Hound, Kooiker Hound Myelopathy Labrador Retriever Axonopathy Fox Hound, Harrier Hound, Beagle Hound ataxia West Highland White Terrier, Cairn Terrier Globoid cell leucodystrophy Cervical stenotic Read more […]

Disorders of eyeball position and movement

As discussed previously, there is an intimate functional association between the innervation to the extraocular muscles and the vestibular system. The extraocular muscles are innervated by cranial nerve III (oculomotor), cranial nerve IV (trochlear) and cranial nerve VI (abducent) (). Any strabismus due to a lesion in one or more of these cranial nerves must be differentiated from lesions affecting the extraocular muscles (including traumatic rupture and extraocular myositis). • Lesions simultaneously affecting CNs III, IV and VI result in external ophthalmoplegia, and internal ophthalmoplegia if the pupillary constrictor (CN III) is affected. • Lesions with only cranial nerve III involvement may present with a ventrolateral strabismus; more rarely lesions may only affect single muscle groups, resulting in a strabismus opposite to the normal function of the denervated muscle. • Lesions affecting the trochlear nerve in isolation are extremely rare but, where they do occur, will result in loss of function of the ipsilateral dorsal oblique muscle (brainstem lesions may result in loss of function, ipsilateral or contralateral). The dorsal oblique muscle functions to rotate the dorsal portion of the globe nasally Read more […]

Bone Eye Troubles

Diseases Of Different Organs A correspondent whose letter appeared in the issue of 4th January refers to the note on this subject and exprsses a wish that had gone more fully into details instead of merely stating simple facts which in the writer’s view, every amateur wuld be acquainted with the correspondent referes to various Toy breeds, like Pekingese and Toy Spaniels, which have large protruding eyes, and suffer from watering and other troubles. To point out at the start that these notes are intended for “novices” in dog keeping, and it is not desirable that those who are inexperienced in such matters should be encouraged to undertake treatment of diseases of such a delicated organ as the eye when even experienced fanciers may very well shrink from amateur treatment. There is no doublt that we want at the present time some veterinary surgeons who have made a special study of the eye and its complaints. We do not myself profess to be at all expert in the knowledge of eye treatment, and any advice We can give must of necessity therefore be to a large extent amateurish, and only intended to apply to simple matters which can be safely left to amateus to doctor at home. Such matters as deep-seated ulcers on the pupil Read more […]

Eye Related Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Eye Diseases A large number of conditions affect the dog’s eyes and range from retinal changes to problems associated with the structure at the front of the eye. Deeper changes are rarely immediately obvious; the effects are mainly in a degree of vision difficulty, apparent as reduced visual acuity or disturbed vision. Distorted vision presents many difficulties as the dog may see objects in a different place and fail to avoid obstructions. Professional attention is necessary. The front chamber and outer covering of the eye is subject to injury and penetration by foreign bodies. Occasionally there is hemorrhage into the front chamber following an accident, resulting in a ‘curtain’ of blood in front of the lens. Although most cases resolve, urgent attention is needed to prevent blindness. Most eye injuries and infections cause inflammation and discharge, with the eye firmly closed. Veterinary examination is urgent; food should be withheld as the dog will probably have to be anaesthetized before the extent of the damage can be explored. Severe inflammation of the outer eye surface is known as Keratitis and can arise from injury or infectious disease. Occasionally, ulceration follows which Read more […]