Tag Archives: Old English Sheepdogs

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Anticancer chemotherapy of the nervous system: Alkylating agents

The major alkylating agents are the nitrogen mustards and the nitrosoureas. These drugs covalently alkylate various cellular constituents. Most importantly for cancer treatment, alkylation occurs between the bases of DNA molecules of rapidly dividing cancer cells. This reaction cross-links the bases of DNA, causing cessation of DNA synthesis and cell death. The most significant effect is to bind and cross-link double-stranded DNA; therefore, these drugs are referred to as bifunctional alkylating agents. Bifunctional alkylating agents are more cytotoxic and produce fewer drug-induced tumours than monofunctional agents. Alkylation of the DNA molecule causes abnormal base pairing, misreading of the genetic code and excision of bases, which prevents DNA transcription and RNA synthesis. These drugs are more active on growing cells in the cell cycle than on dormant ceils. However, they can act at any point of the cell cycle and therefore are non-cycle-specific. They are most active when DNA is dividing, such as in the G1 Phase and S Phase. As a consequence, in addition to their effect on cancer cells, they will also affect rapidly growing normal cells such as bone marrow cells and gastrointestinal mucosa. Nitrogen mustards The Read more […]

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), next to valvular endocardiosis, is the most commonly diagnosed cardiac disorder in dogs. In most cases the cause is not apparent; the most popular concept is that the aetiology for dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs is multifactorial. Cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in association with a deficiency of myocardial L-carnitine have been reported in one family of boxers suggesting that nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. L-Carnitine is necessary for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of cardiac muscle cells and a deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial energy production. More recently, it has been shown that some dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy have reduced plasma taurine levels. In humans, cardiomyopathy is associated with depression of the cellular Na+, K+-ATPase pump and a reduction (down regulation) of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors. Whether a similar situation exists in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy is not clear. A recent study reported no significant difference in the beta receptor density in four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy compared to normal dogs. Immune-mediated disease with the production of antibodies against altered Read more […]

Bone Heart Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Cardiac Failure Heart problems usually relate to either valve disease or deterioration in the heart muscle. Both make the heart less efficient in maintaining circulation, with consequent congestion due to accumulation of abdominal fluid in severe cases. Some dogs develop a characteristic dry cough on exercise. Hot summer days mean added stress on dogs with faulty heart function, and fainting and collapse can easily occur if the dog stays in the sun, especially if the dog is also obese. Some infectious diseases result in deterioration of the heart muscle, but heart valve deterioration is usually associated with age, although the two diseases may occur simultaneously. Drugs are available for many heart conditions and suspected cases need veterinary attention sooner rather than later. With proper treatment and revised life style they need not be fatal. Parasitism caused by heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) can bring serious heart disorders. The parasite is widespread in the United States and in tropical areas of Asia and Africa. A mosquito is needed to complete the life-cycle of heart worms. Treatment and prevention are specialized areas of medicine, sometimes requiring surgical intervention. Endocarditis When Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Herding Dogs

Australian Cattle Dogs OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of the hock Australian Shepherds Hip dysplasia; Dwarfism; Spina bifida Bearded Collies Hip dysplasia Belgian Malinois Hip dysplasia Belgian Sheepdogs Hip dysplasia; Neoplaisa Belgian Tervurens Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Border Collies OCD (osteochondrities dissecans); Hip dysplasia Bouviers des Flandres Elbow dysplasia; Hip dysplasia Briards Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Cardigan Welsh Corgis Medial patella luxation Collies (Rough and Smooth) Dwarfism; Neoplasias German Shepherd Dogs Dwarfism; Panosteitis, shown as limb pain and intermittent lameness between the ages of 6 and 12 monts; Hip dysplasia; UAP (ununited anconeal process); Cartilagenous Exostosis; Pannus; Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias; Thyroid disorders; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans); Degenerative myelopathy causes progressive hind limb paralysis in middle age to older dogs. Old English Sheepdogs Hip dysplasia; Wobblers syndrome Pembroke Welsh Corgis IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Hip dysplasia; Swimmers syndrome Pulik Hip dysplasia Shetland Sheepdogs Hip dysplasia; Dwarfism; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Muscular dystrophy Read more […]

The World of the Dog Show

The first dog shows took place in the 1830s and 1840s. They were low-key affairs, held in public houses, and probably invented as a result of the ban on dog-fighting and bull-baiting which left dog fanciers with little outlet for their competitive instincts. The idea of shows soon caught on, though, and the first organized dog show was held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England in 1859. Dog shows grew in popularity with the building of the railways, since breeders could travel from show to show. However, problems arose when people in different areas had conflicting ideas about how a breed should look. No single body or group was responsible for dog shows and standards varied tremendously. There was much controversy over standards and a great deal of faking. Clubs were therefore established to reach a consensus over what were and were not desirable characteristics of the various breeds. The Kennel club The kennel club in Britain was founded in 1873 to oversee the showing of dogs. The club registers the standards which describe exactly what the ideals of each breed should be. These standards are set by the individual breed societies but held by the Kennel Club. All pedigree dogs must be registered with the kennel club before Read more […]