Tag Archives: Norwegian Elkhound

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

Canine Kidney Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Canine kidney diseases can occur for a variety of reasons, including the presence of tumours in the body, heart failure, bladder stones, or shock following a severe accident. Dr Bush explains how the kidneys work, how they can be affected by disease, and discusses the treatments available to dogs. Understanding the nature of kidney diseases in the dog requires first of all a little knowledge of how the kidneys function. Normal kidneys perform a number of important tasks, espeially, 1) Removing from the body the waste products of metabolic processes (excretion), particularly those resulting from the breakdown of proteins such as urea. 2) regulating the amounts of “salts”, for example, electrolytes such as sodium and potassium, and water in the body. If there is an excess of any of these, the surplus is excreted; if in short supply, excretion is reduced as far as possible so that the substance is conserved. This excretion of substances is achieved by producing urine, the composition of which can be varied. In addition, although not germane to a general consideration of renal disease, the kidneys also control the degree of acidity or alkalinity within the body, secrete hormones affecting blood Read more […]