Tag Archives: Newfoundland

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Anomalies of the Ureters

Ureteral Agenesis Ureteral agenesis is the congenital absence of one or both ureters due to incomplete ureteral bud formation. Unilateral ureteral agenesis is the most common form observed in dogs and cats and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral renal aplasia (). Ureteral Duplication Ureteral duplication is a congenital disorder involving complete or partial duplication of one ureter. This disorder has been associated with a duplexed kidney and a supernumerary kidney in dogs; ureteral duplication has not been observed in cats (). Ureteral Valves Congenital ureteral valves are persistent transverse folds of vestigial mucosa and smooth muscle fibers forming annular, semiannular, or diaphragmatic lesions in the ureter (). Semiannular ureteral valves have been described in a 6-month-old female collie with unilateral ureterectasis, hydronephrosis, and urinary incontinence (). The etiopathogenesis of urinary incontinence associated with ureteral valves in this case is uncertain. Ectopic Ureters Ureteral ectopia is a congenital anomaly in which one or both ureters terminate abnormally in the urinary bladder. Intramural ectopic ureters contact and enter the bladder wall normally but continue submucosally through the Read more […]

Hypothyroidism

the commonest endocrine disorder of the dog the acquired naturally occurring condition has not been documented in the cat although the extremely rare congenital form has been described the metabolically active thyroid hormones are L-thyroxine (T4) and L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Aetiology Primary congenital agenesis (rare) non-functional thyroid tumour (rare) lymphocytic thyroiditis; the most important cause (approximately 90%), an autoimmune disorder which results in thyroid destruction idiopathic thyroid necrosis and atrophy may represent the end stage of lymphocytic thyroiditis Secondary Less common than primary1 causes (less than 5%) TSH deficiency leading to inadequate stimulation of the thyroid gland with subsequent reduction in the production of thyroid hormone congenital hypopituitarism (usually in association with GH deficiency) pituitary neoplasia (may present with other signs, e.g. diabetes insipidus) Tertiary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency results in deficiency of TSH and reduction in thyroid hormone production due to hypothalamic lesions — extremely rare other equally rare causes of hypothyroidism include: iodine deficiency defects in thyroid Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Bone Heart Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Cardiac Failure Heart problems usually relate to either valve disease or deterioration in the heart muscle. Both make the heart less efficient in maintaining circulation, with consequent congestion due to accumulation of abdominal fluid in severe cases. Some dogs develop a characteristic dry cough on exercise. Hot summer days mean added stress on dogs with faulty heart function, and fainting and collapse can easily occur if the dog stays in the sun, especially if the dog is also obese. Some infectious diseases result in deterioration of the heart muscle, but heart valve deterioration is usually associated with age, although the two diseases may occur simultaneously. Drugs are available for many heart conditions and suspected cases need veterinary attention sooner rather than later. With proper treatment and revised life style they need not be fatal. Parasitism caused by heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) can bring serious heart disorders. The parasite is widespread in the United States and in tropical areas of Asia and Africa. A mosquito is needed to complete the life-cycle of heart worms. Treatment and prevention are specialized areas of medicine, sometimes requiring surgical intervention. Endocarditis When Read more […]

Activities

Swimming Swimming is a great way for dogs to get their exercise. It is a low-impact form of exercise that doesn’t tax any joints, but builds muscles. Dogs that are prone to gaining weight can swim to remain in shape and cut pounds from their frames. Good health can be maintained while the dog is having fun. Swimming is also a great way to safely exercise your dog in the summer heat. She can exercise and keep her body temperature down at the same time. Equipment for swimming can be minimal, yet there are certain things to have with you to provide a safe swimming experience for you and your pet. A long leash helps your dog learn to return to your side and gives you some control over where she’s swimming. Wear water shoes of some sort. You should be prepared to go in the water to teach your dog to swim, and you should always be prepared to jump in — even with a seasoned swimmer, just in case something happens. Having a toy to retrieve is helpful once the dog has learned to swim. Not all dogs (even sporting breeds) know how to swim right away, so do not throw your dog into the water in the hopes of his learning quickly. This will only scare him and perhaps cause panic and an accident. Do not make this new learning Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Working Dogs

Akitas Juvenille polyarthrities causing incapacitating pain and fever; Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Alaskan Malamutes Hip dysplasia; Chondrodysplasia, a dwarfism associated with anemia that produces stunted growth in the forelegs, lateral deviation of the foot, carpal enlargement, bowing of forelegs, and a sloping topline; Polyneuropathy, an hereditary progressive muscle weakness Bernese Mountain Dogs Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias Boxers Neoplasias; Interverterbral disk degeneration Cardiomyopathy. Bullmastiffs Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Cervical vertebral malformation; UAP (ununited anconeal process) Doberman Pinscher Wobblers syndrome; Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (osteophytes and cysts form in distal metaphyses of ulna and radius); Neoplasias; Elbow dysplasia Read more […]

Complex inherited traits

Not all polygenic characters can be classified into grades; some, such as epilepsy, are all-or-nothing traits in that the dog is either normal or abnormal. Such traits, known as threshold traits, are difficult to work with but can respond to selection. Anyone purchasing a dog in a breed in which polygenic defects are common should ensure that parental stock are evaluated. It would, for example, be foolish to purchase breeds like German Shepherd Dogs, Labradors, Golden Retrievers or the giant breeds like Newfoundlands and St. Bernards without seeking hip scores from the British Veterinary Association/German Shepherd Dog League or their equivalent in other countries. A dog is acquired for its virtues rather than for its defects, but virtues are different things to different owners. Sound character is the most important trait of any dog whether it is acquired as a family pet or as a potential show or working dog. In working breeds it should be possible to obtain a dog of sound character and working ability as well as beautiful looks, but in some breeds working and show strains have tended to diverge, polarizing in two quite different looking animals. Most of the aspects governing so-called beauty, character and working Read more […]

Immunisation: Breeding and Lifeline

Canine Parovirus Immunization: Myths And Realities Time and again, questions have often been asked related to immunization of dogs. For example: Are vaccines safe? What are the risks where adverse reactions are known to occur, such as with MLV distemper and canine adenovirus vaccines? How soon do vaccines provide protection when a dog is exposed to virulent virus? How long does immunity last? Does a vaccine protect against actual infection and subsequent transmission of a pathogen, or only against disease? Should vaccines be expected to provide protection under all circumstances of breeding and management, or are other methods of disease control of equal or even greater importance? Distinguishing The Viruses: Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) is a term used to distinguish the highly pathogenic parvovirus from the “minute virus of canines” (CPV-I): CPV-2 is closely related to feline, mink and raccoon parvoviruses, but it is known to infect and cause disease only in members of the dog family. The principal mode of transmission is by fecal-oral spread. Virus is shed in the faeces of infected dogs for about one week, but not longer than two weeks. A carrier state has not been confirmed. CPV-2 is very stable to heat and most Read more […]

Anatomy Of The Dog: What is a Breed

A few months ago, the United Kennel Club added nine breeds, to its registry, bringing its total to 160. Last month, the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Eskimo to its miscellaneous group, the first step towards official recognition as an AKC breed. The new UKC breeds are Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen, Canaan Dog, English Toy Spaniel, Finnish Spitz, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Manchester Terrier, Polish Owczarek Nizinny, Tibetan Spaniel and Shiba, all but the Nizziny are recognized by the AKC, some of them for many years, and AKC’s newest, the American Eskimo, has been a UKC breed for a long time. Both registries seem to be in race to add new breeds to their lists, a race that some critics say is an effort to increase the treasuries of both organizations. This rush, along with the apparent whimsical assignment of breed status in some cases, an increase in breed-specific laws in the last few years, and the call by animal rights advocates for a ban on breeding pure bred dogs, has caused some to wonder about the definition of breed. So what is a breed? Webster’s Desk Dictionary of the English Language defines a breed as “a homogeneous grouping Read more […]