Tag Archives: Maltese

Yorkshire Terrier

History and Development Although the history of the Yorkshire Terrier is somewhat obscure, the breed is not of any great antiquity. In spite of its undoubted relationship to the old Scottish breeds such as the Clydesdale and the old Black and Tan, the Yorkshire Terrier, as its name implies, was developed in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Undoubtedly other breeds were introduced, for instance the Maltese and the Dandic Dinmont have been mentioned, but this cannot be authenticated. The prototype Yorkies varied considerably in size, most being much larger than the present dog and weighing up to 14 or 15 lbs. Of a lighter color and having drop or semi-crect ears which were very often cropped, they were nevertheless identifiable with the modern Yorkie. A show in Leeds in 1861 seems to be the first of which there is record of these dogs being shown. All the exhibits in the class tor “Scotch Terriers”, a term used loosely in those days, were Yorkshire Terriers of a crude pattern. It was not until 1886 that the breed was recognized as Yorkshire Terrier by the Kennel Club in England. These early Yorkies were used mainly for ratting and it took many years and the considerable skill of the breeders to reduce the Read more […]


History and Development The history of the Maltese, as the oldest European toy dog, can he traced back many centuries to the pre-Christian era. Since they originated in an area which early became civilized, few breeds have had so much written about them at so early a time. Callimachus the Elder (c 384-322 B.C.), Strabo (c 63 B.C.-A.D. 24), Pliny the Elder (23 b.c.-a.d. 79) and Martial (c a.d. 38-a.D. 104) all wrote of the qualities of the Maltese dogs, praising their beauty and intelligence, and they had by this time become “comforters” and pet dogs. It seems probable that they were exported through the ports of Malta and that their widespread dispersal in ancient times can be related to their being exchanged tor goods along the trade routes, and also to their having been made as gifts by visiting diplomatic mission’.. They were quite common in China and the Philippines, between whom there was much trade. Although it is generally believed that the first Maltese came to England during the early part of the 14th century, their popularity at the time of the Holy Roman Empire makes it likely that they were brought over during the Roman occupation of England, many centuries before William the Conqueror. Dogs of Read more […]

Chihuahua (Long-coat, Smooth-coat)

History and Development Chihuahuas arc the smallest members of the canine family. Contrary to popular belief, they are not Mexican in origin. They have existed, relatively unchanged, for hundreds of years, in the lands of the Mediterranean. Ten years before Columbus made his first voyage one was featured by Boticelli, in a fresco in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, the only dog to receive such recognition. Many modern, cream-colored Smooth Chihuahuas look remarkably like the dog in that painting. However, the show type specimen of today was developed in the U.S.A. They flourish on the island of Malta, where they are known as pocket-dogs (Kelb Ta But), and in England, well before 1850, British fanciers made a number of semi-successful attempts to establish them. Early English breeders stated that these “Maltese” terriers, as they called them, were used to refine several other small breeds before they submerged. When tourists, soon after 1850, found and purchased specimens from peons in the north Mexican state of Chihuahua, unsuspecting American breeders gave the dog its name and established it as a firm favorite in the U.S.A. They drew up a breed Standard and today it is one of the top popularity breeds, sixth among 116 Read more […]

Anatomy and Normal Reproductive Physiology

1) When should I expect my male dog to be fertile? That depends on his breed. Animals of most species go through puberty and become sexually mature when they reach about 80% of their adult body weight. For a Maltese, that may occur when he is 4 months old. For a Leonberger, that may not occur until he is almost 2 years old. The only ways to know for sure that a male is fertile are either to breed him or to collect semen for evaluation. 2) My dog has poor libido. Does he have a testosterone deficiency? No. I have never documented lack of testosterone as a cause of poor libido in dogs nor has anyone else, to my knowledge. Embryology and anatomy of the male reproductive tract Determination of gender is dependent on the type of sex chromosomes present in the embryo. All dogs have 78 chromosomes, two of which are sex chromosomes; in females both are X chromosomes, and in males there is one X and one Y chromosome. Two tubular tracts are present in the developing embryo: the mullerian (paramesonephric) duct system, which goes on to form the female reproductive tract, and the wolffian (mesonephric) duct system, which goes on to form the tubular portions of the male reproductive tract. In the presence of a Y chromosome, Read more […]

Generalized Tremor Syndromes

Generalized tremors are surprisingly common in dogs (). This type of tremor can occur secondary to intoxications, drug therapies, congenital myelin abnormalities, storage diseases, encephalitis, or may arise without a definable cause. Degenerative diseases Lysosomal storage diseases Lysosomal storage diseases of the nervous system may have tremor as a presenting abnormality. Examples include globoid cell leucodystrophy, mannosidosis and gangliosidosis. The numerous storage diseases and their associated characteristic clinical signs have been described elsewhere (). Clinical signs: These diseases are often breed-related () with clinical signs first appearing in animals <1 year of age, but they can occur at any age. Many of these diseases involve the cerebellum and are associated with intention tremors. Pathogenesis: Accumulation of metabolic byproducts within neurons or the surrounding neuropil usually results from an inherited deficiency of a specific catabolic enzyme. The accumulation causes dysfunction of the cells and regions of the nervous system affected. Diagnosis: Ante-mortem testing for many of these diseases often results in negative or normal findings. CSF analysis is often normal, although Read more […]

Central vestibular diseases

Degenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases Lysosomal storage disorders are inborn errors of metabolism in vhich specific deficiencies of degradative enzymes cause substrate accumulation and result in cellular and clinical dysfunction. Neurodegenerative disorders are diseases associated with an abnormality in the metabolic pathway that leads to early death of the neuron. Several of these conditions can present with ataxia and incoordination suggestive of vestibular disease. () Anomalous diseases Chiari-like malformations Chiari-like malformations are congenital defects characterized by caudal displacement of part of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum. This occurs as a result of occipital bone dysplasia causing the caudal fossa to become abnormal in size or shape. This malformation can cause compression of the brainstem and cerebellum, and result in signs of central vestibular disease. Neoplastic diseases Brain tumours Of the primary brain tumours seen in dogs, meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas have a site predilection for the caudal lossa. As such, vestibular signs are commonly encountered in affected animals. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts are occasionally Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Toy Dogs

Affenpinschers Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Brussels Griffon Shoulder dislocation Cavalier King Charles Spaniels Patella luxation; Episodic weakness and collapse, a rare, inherited disorder Chihuahuas (Long and Smooth coats) Shoulders dislocation; Patella luxation, medial or lateral; Hypoplasia of dens, which produces atlantoaxial subluxation, causing neck pain and quadriplegia Chinese Cresteds Medial patella luation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease English Toy Spaniels (Blenheim/Prince Charles and King Charles/Ruby) Patella luxation, medial or lateral can occur with medial the most common, Congenital Femoral Shift Italian Greyhounds Predisposed to forelimb fractures Japanese Chin Dwarfism Maltese Patella luxatin Miniature Pinschers Shoulders dislocation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Epiphyseal dysplasia; Decreased long-bone growth; OIsteopenia Papillons Patella luxation Perkingese Hypoplaisa of dense (Odontoid Process, an atlantoaxial subluxation, causes neck pain and quadriplegia); IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Swimmers syndrome; Atypical pannus; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Pomeranians Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Dwarfism; Read more […]