Tag Archives: Malamute

Zinc Acetate, Zinc Sulfate

NUTRITIONAL; TRACE ELEMENT Highlights of Prescribing Information Metal nutritional agent that may be used for zinc deficiency, to reduce copper toxicity in susceptible dog breeds (Bedlington Terriers, West Highland White Terriers) with hepatic copper toxicosis, & treat hepatic fibrosis in dogs. Has astringent & antiseptic activity topically. Contraindications: None; consider obtaining zinc & copper levels before treating. Adverse Effects: Large doses may cause GI disturbances or hematologic abnormalities (usually hemolysis), particularly if a coexistent copper deficiency exists Zinc overdoses (e.g., U.S. Pennies) can be serious What Is Drug Used For? Zinc sulfate is used systemically as a nutritional supplement in a variety of species. Oral zinc acetate has been shown to reduce copper toxicity in susceptible dog breeds (Bedlington Terriers, West Highland White Terriers) with hepatic copper toxicosis. Zinc therapy may also be of benefit in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in the dog. Zinc sulfate is used topically as an astringent and as a weak antiseptic both for dermatologic and ophthalmic conditions. Pharmacology / Actions Zinc is a necessary nutritional supplement; it is required by Read more […]

The Anterior Uvea

The irides of the puppy and kitten are often a different color than those of the adult. The blue-gray iris of puppies and kittens usually changes to the adult coloration within a few weeks. Iris color is ultimately related to the degree of stromal pigmentation and is influenced by coat color. Congenital Abnormalities Persistent Pupillary Membranes. Persistent pupillary membranes are strands of tissue that arise from the anterior iris surface and represent remnants of an embryonic vascular system. The persistent pupillary membranes may be confined to the iris surface or may extend from the iris to the cornea or lens (). Persistent pupillary membranes are inherited in the basenji. Iris Cysts. Iris cysts are floating, fluid-filled vesicles that arise from the posterior iris epithelium and are usually found in the anterior chamber. Iris cysts may be unilateral or bilateral and singular or multiple in number. Pupillary Abnormalities. A notch-like defect (coloboma) is occasionally seen in the ventronasal pupillary border of young dogs and cats, resulting in a keyhole-shaped pupil. An eccentric pupil (corectopia) may accompany multiple ocular defects, as occurs in the Australian shepherd. Eccentric pupils are usually Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

The Eye As An Optical Device

A primary function of the eye is to form a crisply focused image on the retina. The optical components through which light travels to reach the retina are the cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous body. For proper image formation these components must remain transparent and maintain precise relationships to one another. One of the exciting areas of ongoing research is attempting to define the mechanisms whereby these relationships are maintained during growth of the eye. A point source of light located at the visual horizon emits rays that are convergent, divergent, and parallel relative to the eye. At a great distance only rays that are essentially parallel will enter the pupil of the dog. Divergent and convergent rays will pass peripheral to the pupillary aperture. If the eye is focused at infinity (is emmetropic), parallel rays will be refracted and imaged as a point on the dog’s retina. If the dog’s eye is ametropic (either myopic or hyperopic), the rays will not be properly imaged on the retina and will form a blurred circle. As an object is brought closer and closer to the dog’s eye, the percentage of divergent rays entering the pupil will increase, requiring an increase in refractive power of the Read more […]

Paraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Dermoid sinus Clinical signs: Dermoid sinuses more often occur in the cervical region but can involve the thoracolumbar region (). Neurological examination is normal in the non-communicating form but neurological signs may occur if the sinus communicates with the dura or becomes infected (). Neurological signs reflect the neuroanatomical localization of the sinus. Close inspection of the hair on the midline may reveal abnormal placement. Pathogenesis: Dermoid sinus is an inherited neural tube defect in the Rhodesian Ridgeback () but has also been reported in other breeds (). The defect results from incomplete separation of the skin and neural tube during embryonic development (). The sinus often extends from the skin to the supraspinous ligament as a closed sac filled with keratin debris. Communication with the subarachnoid space can predispose to meningomyelitis. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on physical examination; radiography can be used to evaluate the extent of the sinus. Contrast radiography, using a non-ionic contrast medium (e.g. iohexol), determines whether the tract is closed and non-communicating or open and communicating with the spinal canal. Myelography determines the amount of spinal cord displacement. Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Activities

Swimming Swimming is a great way for dogs to get their exercise. It is a low-impact form of exercise that doesn’t tax any joints, but builds muscles. Dogs that are prone to gaining weight can swim to remain in shape and cut pounds from their frames. Good health can be maintained while the dog is having fun. Swimming is also a great way to safely exercise your dog in the summer heat. She can exercise and keep her body temperature down at the same time. Equipment for swimming can be minimal, yet there are certain things to have with you to provide a safe swimming experience for you and your pet. A long leash helps your dog learn to return to your side and gives you some control over where she’s swimming. Wear water shoes of some sort. You should be prepared to go in the water to teach your dog to swim, and you should always be prepared to jump in — even with a seasoned swimmer, just in case something happens. Having a toy to retrieve is helpful once the dog has learned to swim. Not all dogs (even sporting breeds) know how to swim right away, so do not throw your dog into the water in the hopes of his learning quickly. This will only scare him and perhaps cause panic and an accident. Do not make this new learning Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Breed Action

In some breeds, admitting to the occurrence of an inherited defect is hazardous. Many breeders will openly condemn those who confess to having had a problem. It is as if breeders believe that silence will make the defect go away. This is clearly not the case, indeed, it is more likely that defects will spread. It is far more mature to admit to problems and collectively try to solve them. In the short term there may be heartache and economic loss for some, but in the long term the breed will benefit. It is crucial that breeders do not simply rely on pedigree data vvhen trying to evaluate problems. If a defect is recessive or suspected as being recessive, then the need is not only for five generation pedigrees of affected animals but also numbers of the litter born, their sexes status and, in the case of defects seen in later life, the age at examination. Given such data, a geneticist can help a breed examine the problem in depth. Given a list of “affected” pedigrees only on is in danger of “tracing the defect to a certain dog” without being aware that all pedigrees, affected and normal, trace to him. Any widely used stud might appear in “affected” pedigree without actually being the source of the problem though in some Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Working Dogs

Akitas Juvenille polyarthrities causing incapacitating pain and fever; Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Alaskan Malamutes Hip dysplasia; Chondrodysplasia, a dwarfism associated with anemia that produces stunted growth in the forelegs, lateral deviation of the foot, carpal enlargement, bowing of forelegs, and a sloping topline; Polyneuropathy, an hereditary progressive muscle weakness Bernese Mountain Dogs Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias Boxers Neoplasias; Interverterbral disk degeneration Cardiomyopathy. Bullmastiffs Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Cervical vertebral malformation; UAP (ununited anconeal process) Doberman Pinscher Wobblers syndrome; Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (osteophytes and cysts form in distal metaphyses of ulna and radius); Neoplasias; Elbow dysplasia Read more […]