Tag Archives: Lhasa Apso

Hypersensitivity Skin Disorders

Clinical hypersensitivity disorders have been classified by Gel and Coombes. The following description is simplified since in many instances complex interactions occur simultaneously. Type 1 (immediate, anaphylactic) genetically susceptible individuals inhale (absorb percutaneously?) allergens such as pollen and house dust, and produce immunoglobulin E (IgE), which fixes to tissue mast cells and blood basophils the allergen subsequently comes into contact with its specific IgE, leading to the release of vasoactive amines, which cause tissue damage examples are urticaria, angio-oedema, atopy, drug eruption and flea-bite hypersensitivity Type 2 (cytotoxic) IgG or IgM with or without complement binds to complete antigens on body tissues the antigen—antibody reaction causes cell lysis examples are pemphigus, pemphigoid, cold agglutinin disease and dnig eruption Type 3 (immune complex) circulating antigen-antibody complexes fix complement and are deposited in blood vessel walls these complexes attract neutrophils; proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released from the neutrophils produce tissue damage examples are systemic lupus erythematosus and bacterial hypersensitivity Type 4 (delayed) incomplete Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

The Eye

The Ophthalmic Examination History A complete ophthalmic history is an essential part of every puppy’s or kitten’s examination. Owners may be asked questions regarding the animal’s signalment, history of the presenting complaint(s), and any pertinent medical or ophthalmic diseases in the animal’s family histories. Other historical information that may be included is the animal’s vaccination status, diet, environment, and exposure to other animals. Previous therapy should be identified to prevent repetition of an unsuccessful regimen. Procedure Ophthalmic examination should be performed in a quiet area. Puppies usually require only gentle but firm restraint of the head. Very young puppies cooperate nicely when held in an assistant’s arms. Kittens can also be gently restrained and are less likely to demonstrate the constant ocular motion typical of puppies. Uncooperative puppies or kittens may be placed in a towel or restraint bag. Assessment of ocular abnormalities such as orbital swelling, squinting, or ocular discharge can be done in a well-lighted room, but actual ophthalmoscopic examination should be done with the lights dimmed. A bright source of focal illumination is required; the Finoff transilluminator on Read more […]

The Eyelids

Developmental Abnormalities Eyelid Agenesis. Eyelid agenesis is a congenital defect of the eyelid margin resulting in absence of varying segments of the eyelid margin, palpebral conjunctiva, and fornices. The agenesis may be unilateral or bilateral, affecting the kitten more often than the puppy. The lateral one third or two thirds of the upper eyelid margin is most frequently involved. Keratitis and ulceration result from direct contact of the cornea with facial hairs and from exposure secondary to imperfect eyelid closure. Small eyelid defects may be successfully managed with ophthalmic lubricant ointments applied three to four times a day to reduce ocular irritation or by performing an entropion procedure to evert the offending hairs. If one third of the eyelid or more is missing, a pedicle graft from the inferior temporal aspect of the lower eyelid can be transposed to the upper eyelid. Distichiasis. Distichiasis is an extra row of eyelashes (cilia) that protrudes from the orifices of the meibomian glands onto the eyelid margin. The upper, lower, or both eyelids may be involved (). Congenital distichiasis often occurs in the English bulldog, toy poodle, miniature poodle, American cocker spaniel, golden retriever, Read more […]

The Conjunctiva

Developmental Abnormalities Dermoids. Dermoids are congenital masses of tissue containing skin, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. They most commonly occur in the temporal perilimbal conjunctiva and may also involve the eyelid margin or the cornea (). Dermoids often cause ocular irritation and epiphora. Treatment involves careful dissection of the dermoid from the surrounding conjunctiva and the underlying sclera. If the cornea is involved, a superficial keratectomy is also indicated. Aberrant Canthal Dermis. Aberrant canthal dermis is characterized by long hairs, which extend from the medial canthal caruncle onto the corneal surface. The hairs wick the tears from the eye onto the eyelid, causing facial staining in the puppy or kitten. If the condition is allowed to persist, the cilia may cause corneal pigmentation. The condition is most frequently seen in the Lhasa apso, Shih Tzu, Pekingese, poodle, and Chinese pug dog breeds and infrequently in the Persian cat. Cryotherapy is a simple, effective method of destroying the hair follicles within the caruncle. The caruncle may also be surgically excised (). A sliding conjunctival flap is created by bluntly undermining the surrounding conjunctiva. The flap is then Read more […]

The Cornea

Congenital Abnormalities Comeal Opacities. The cornea of the newborn puppy or kitten is a light blue color; or at least the cornea is less clear than that of the adult. In 2 to 4 weeks, corneal clearing is sufficient to permit ophthalmoscopic examination. It is not unusual to observe multifocal or diffuse faint white opacities in the corneas of young puppies and kittens. The opacities represent superficial foci of edema, and most are self-limiting. The cause of these opacities is unknown. Therapy is not necessary unless the opacities are accompanied by a mucopurulent discharge, in which case topical ophthalmic antimicrobial preparations may be applied. Animals born with their eyelids open often have diffuse corneal edema that clears in 14 to 18 days. Because reflex lacrimation is absent at birth, the exposed cornea is subject to desiccation and infection and can be avoided by frequent application of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial ointment every 3 or 4 hours until the animal is 10 to 12 days old. Cats with lysosomal storage diseases may develop corneal opacities related to the accumulation of polysaccharides within the endothelial cells and fibroblasts of the cornea. Fine granular deposits in the corneal stroma may Read more […]

Type I intervertebral disc disease

Clinical signs: Onset of neurological signs may be peracute (<1 hour), acute (<24 hours) or gradual (>24 hours). Dogs presented with peracute or acute thoracolumbar disc extrusions may manifest clinical signs of spinal shock or Schiff-Sherrington postures. These indicate acute and severe spinal cord injury but do not determine prognosis. The degree of neurological dysfunction is variable and affects prognosis. Clinical signs vary from spinal hyperaesthesia only to paraplegia with orwithoutpain perception. Dogs with back pain only are usually reluctant to walk and may show kyphosis. Dogs with back pain alone and no neurological deficits often have myelographic evidence of substantial spinal cord compression. Neuroanatomical localization for thoracolumbar lesions is determined by intact (T3-L3) or hyporeflexive (L4-S3) spinal reflexes and by the site of paraspinal hyperaesthesia. Asymmetrical neurological deficits may be less reliable for determining the site of disc extrusion. Pathogenesis: Hansen (1951) first classified intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) as type I and type II. Hansen type I IVDD is herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the annular fibres and extrusion of nuclear material into the Read more […]

Decreased vision with pupillary light reflex deficits

Concurrent impaired vision and pupillary light reflex deficits are suggestive of a lesion affecting the proximal portion of the visual pathway, from the retina to just prior to the lateral geniculate nucleus, which is common to both the visual pathways and the pupillary light reflex pathway. Retinal, optic disc and optic nerve lesions Unilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision in the affected eye and loss of the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex on stimulating the affected eye. Both the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex should still be present on stimulating the normal eye. Bilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision, mydriasis and loss of the pupillary light reflex (both the direct and consensual reflexes) in both eyes. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration: SARD is characterized by an acute loss of vision (although in some cases this may develop over a few days), and occurs occasionally in dogs in the UK (). Affected dogs are typically adult (middle-aged), can be of pedigree or mixed breed descent, and present bilaterally blind with dilated unresponsive pupils. In the acute stages no abnormalities are evident on ophthalmoscopic examination, but overtime (weeks Read more […]

Canine Kidney Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Canine kidney diseases can occur for a variety of reasons, including the presence of tumours in the body, heart failure, bladder stones, or shock following a severe accident. Dr Bush explains how the kidneys work, how they can be affected by disease, and discusses the treatments available to dogs. Understanding the nature of kidney diseases in the dog requires first of all a little knowledge of how the kidneys function. Normal kidneys perform a number of important tasks, espeially, 1) Removing from the body the waste products of metabolic processes (excretion), particularly those resulting from the breakdown of proteins such as urea. 2) regulating the amounts of “salts”, for example, electrolytes such as sodium and potassium, and water in the body. If there is an excess of any of these, the surplus is excreted; if in short supply, excretion is reduced as far as possible so that the substance is conserved. This excretion of substances is achieved by producing urine, the composition of which can be varied. In addition, although not germane to a general consideration of renal disease, the kidneys also control the degree of acidity or alkalinity within the body, secrete hormones affecting blood Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Non-Sporting Dogs

American Eskimo Dogs Hip dysplasia Bichons Frises Patella luxation Boston Terriers Neoplasias; Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Swimmers syndrome, the inability to stand at four to six weeks; Vertebral abnormalities Bulldogs Spina bifida, caused by ununited neural arches; Neoplausa; Swimmers syndrome, the inability to stand at four to six weeks; Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Flaccid shoulder joints; Thyroid disorders; Vertebral abnormalites Chinese Shar-Peis Patella luxation; Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Swollen hock syndrome Chow Chows Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Dalmatians Muscular dystrophy Finnish Spitz Patella luxation French Bulldogs Hemivertebrae, which is the asymmetric abnormal development of vertebrae, resulting in scoliosis and crowding of one half of the body, producing a wedge-shape. It often results in neonatal death or spinal cord compression in older puppies. Keeshonds Thyroid and other endocrine disorders, primary hyperparathyroidism in older dogs; Patella luxation; Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias Lhasa Apsos Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Hip dysplasia Poodles (Miniature) Dwarfism; Hypoplasia of dens; Atypical pannus; Patella luxation; Shoulder luxation; Read more […]