Tag Archives: King Charles Spaniel

Acute enteritis

Dietary diarrhoea Dogs in particular will tolerate a wide variety of diets, while cats tend to be fastidious and require a high protein diet. If the diet is changed suddenly, especially from a dried to a tinned food, then diarrhoea often follows for several days which will be self-limiting. Unfortunately most owners on observing the diarrhoea then change the diet, further exacerbating the problem. This leads to episodes of apparent relapsing acute diarrhoea although there is a history of frequent diet changes. Treatment simply involves the selection of a suitable standard diet fed at the correct rates without change or supplementation. Dogs are frequently fed high carbohydrate diets usually in the form of biscuit, potato or bread. High levels of cereal or potato in the diet, especially if not precooked will often lead to diarrhoea. This is because the carbohydate is not as digestible when uncooked and may reach the distal ileum and colon where bacterial fermentation occurs. The problem should be recognized from a careful history, and is easily corrected by changing the dietary management. Milk is renowned for causing diarrhoea in adult dogs and occasionally cats, although it is not common in the authors’ experience. Read more […]

Tremor and involuntary movements

Involuntary movement disorders result in some of the most dramatic clinical presentations in veterinary medicine. Classically, these disorders are present during periods of inactivity rather than during voluntary movement. Cerebellar disease, conversely, can result in apparent involuntary abnormalities during movement. Some involuntary movements are persistent while others are episodic. Certain involuntary movements have characteristics that allow for identification of specific causes, whereas others are only a reflection of dysfunction of the nervous or musculoskeletal systems. Clinically, it is important to first identify the type of involuntary movement present. Subsequently, a more directed approach can be used to establish the cause of the movement disorder. Clinical signs Involuntary movement disorders are less well classified in animals than in humans. Terms such as tics, twitches, shivering, shuddering and fasciculation are often used to describe episodic, irregular muscle contractions. They are usually manifested through abnormal motion of the limbs, trunk or head. There are seven forms of involuntary movement. Myoclonus Myoclonus is a shock-like contraction of a muscle or muscles that tends to occur repeatedly Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Pedigree Dog Breeding

Approximately 41 % of dogs in the UK are described by their owners as pedigrees (J. T. Murray unpublished telephone survey). Many such dogs are far from healthy, as has been highlighted both by the popular media (e.g. BBC 2008) and in a range of reports, reviews, and scientific papers. Breeding dogs primarily for their appearance has led to compromised health and welfare in two different ways, one resulting directly from selection for exaggerated physical features and the other, indirectly resulting in an increased incidence of disease (see also Duffy and Serpell, this volume). Exaggerated Physical Features Artificial selection has resulted in a wide variety of morphologies in different breeds of dog. Many breeds are anatomically modified in ways which compromise their physical health. The English bulldog is a regularly cited example of morphological extremes, resulting in locomotion difficulties, breathing problems, and an inability to mate or give birth without physical and/or surgical interventions (Advocates for Animals 2006). However, there are many other less visually obvious anatomical deformities in other breeds, ranging from overly long backs to heavily wrinkled skin, and flat faces that restrict breathing. Systematic Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Atlantoaxial instability Clinical signs: Onset of signs in dogs with the congenital form of the disease usually occurs in young animals (<2 years of age), though problems can develop at any age. Signs can develop acutely or gradually, and waxing and waning of signs is often reported – presumably a reflection of instability at the atlantoaxial junction causing repeated injury to the spinal cord. Signs include neck pain (variably present), ataxia, tetraparesis, and postural-reaction and conscious pro-prioceptive deficits with normal to increased muscle tone and myotatic reflexes in all four legs. In severe cases, animals can present with tetraplegia and difficulty in breathing and they may die acutely as a result of respiratory failure. Pathogenesis: The atlas (first cervical vertebra) and axis (second cervical vertebra) are bound together by ligaments that run from the dens of the axis to the atlas and the skull, over the dens binding it to the floor of the atlas (the transverse ligament) and between the dorsal lamina of the atlas and the dorsal spinous process of the axis (). The dens is a bony projection from the cranial aspect of the body of the axis and develops from a separate growth plate. Subluxation of Read more […]

Anomalous diseases

Atlantoaxial instability Atlantoaxial instability can lead to subluxation of the first and second cervical vertebrae; the cranial aspect of the axis often rotates dorsally with respect to the atlas, into the vertebral canal. Subsequent spinal cord compression results in a variety of neurological signs, but may just cause cervical pain. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this disease are discussed in site. Chiari-like malformations Clinicalsigns:The condition may be acute orchronic, and can occur in dogs ranging from 6 months to 10 years of age. Clinical signs include neck pain, torticollis or scoliosis, spinal hyperaesthesia and neurological deficits relating to cervical spinal cord dysfunction. Intracranial signs, such as facial paresis and vestibular dysfunction, have also been reported. Paroxysmal involuntary scratching of the neck and flank has been associated with this condition. Pathogenesis: Chiari-like malformations are complex developmental disorders involving the caudal brainstem, cerebellum and the cranial cervical spinal cord. The human classification of Chiari type I necessitates elongation and caudal displacement of the cerebellartonsils(vermis and paravermal lobes) through the foramen Read more […]

Bone Heart Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Cardiac Failure Heart problems usually relate to either valve disease or deterioration in the heart muscle. Both make the heart less efficient in maintaining circulation, with consequent congestion due to accumulation of abdominal fluid in severe cases. Some dogs develop a characteristic dry cough on exercise. Hot summer days mean added stress on dogs with faulty heart function, and fainting and collapse can easily occur if the dog stays in the sun, especially if the dog is also obese. Some infectious diseases result in deterioration of the heart muscle, but heart valve deterioration is usually associated with age, although the two diseases may occur simultaneously. Drugs are available for many heart conditions and suspected cases need veterinary attention sooner rather than later. With proper treatment and revised life style they need not be fatal. Parasitism caused by heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) can bring serious heart disorders. The parasite is widespread in the United States and in tropical areas of Asia and Africa. A mosquito is needed to complete the life-cycle of heart worms. Treatment and prevention are specialized areas of medicine, sometimes requiring surgical intervention. Endocarditis When Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Toy Dogs

Affenpinschers Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Brussels Griffon Shoulder dislocation Cavalier King Charles Spaniels Patella luxation; Episodic weakness and collapse, a rare, inherited disorder Chihuahuas (Long and Smooth coats) Shoulders dislocation; Patella luxation, medial or lateral; Hypoplasia of dens, which produces atlantoaxial subluxation, causing neck pain and quadriplegia Chinese Cresteds Medial patella luation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease English Toy Spaniels (Blenheim/Prince Charles and King Charles/Ruby) Patella luxation, medial or lateral can occur with medial the most common, Congenital Femoral Shift Italian Greyhounds Predisposed to forelimb fractures Japanese Chin Dwarfism Maltese Patella luxatin Miniature Pinschers Shoulders dislocation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Epiphyseal dysplasia; Decreased long-bone growth; OIsteopenia Papillons Patella luxation Perkingese Hypoplaisa of dense (Odontoid Process, an atlantoaxial subluxation, causes neck pain and quadriplegia); IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Swimmers syndrome; Atypical pannus; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Pomeranians Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Dwarfism; Read more […]