Tag Archives: King Charles

Chihuahua (Long-coat, Smooth-coat)

History and Development Chihuahuas arc the smallest members of the canine family. Contrary to popular belief, they are not Mexican in origin. They have existed, relatively unchanged, for hundreds of years, in the lands of the Mediterranean. Ten years before Columbus made his first voyage one was featured by Boticelli, in a fresco in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, the only dog to receive such recognition. Many modern, cream-colored Smooth Chihuahuas look remarkably like the dog in that painting. However, the show type specimen of today was developed in the U.S.A. They flourish on the island of Malta, where they are known as pocket-dogs (Kelb Ta But), and in England, well before 1850, British fanciers made a number of semi-successful attempts to establish them. Early English breeders stated that these “Maltese” terriers, as they called them, were used to refine several other small breeds before they submerged. When tourists, soon after 1850, found and purchased specimens from peons in the north Mexican state of Chihuahua, unsuspecting American breeders gave the dog its name and established it as a firm favorite in the U.S.A. They drew up a breed Standard and today it is one of the top popularity breeds, sixth among 116 Read more […]

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

History and Development Whatever its origin, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is the direct descendant of the small Toy Spaniels depicted in paintings of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Toy Spaniels were quite common as pets among the ladies of the Tudor Court but, in England, it was the Stuarts who showed so much fondness for these little dogs that they were given Royal title of King Charles Spaniels. Rarely was Charles II seen without several of these dogs at his heels and Samuel Pepys, the diarist, complained bitterly that at council meetings the King would play with his dogs rather than attend to council business. John Evelyn, writing in his diary, said: “He took delight in having a number of little Spaniels follow him and lie in his bedchamber where he suffered the bitches to puppy and give suck, which rendered it very offensive”. On the night on which the King died, several of these dogs lay by the fire in the next room, creeping in to their master when the door was left open. One of the earliest paintings showing a Cavalier type Spaniel is Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian, in the National Gallery in London; it was painted about 1523. When William of Orange became William III of England, the Pug dog Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in BedlingtonĀ terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

Acute enteritis

Dietary diarrhoea Dogs in particular will tolerate a wide variety of diets, while cats tend to be fastidious and require a high protein diet. If the diet is changed suddenly, especially from a dried to a tinned food, then diarrhoea often follows for several days which will be self-limiting. Unfortunately most owners on observing the diarrhoea then change the diet, further exacerbating the problem. This leads to episodes of apparent relapsing acute diarrhoea although there is a history of frequent diet changes. Treatment simply involves the selection of a suitable standard diet fed at the correct rates without change or supplementation. Dogs are frequently fed high carbohydrate diets usually in the form of biscuit, potato or bread. High levels of cereal or potato in the diet, especially if not precooked will often lead to diarrhoea. This is because the carbohydate is not as digestible when uncooked and may reach the distal ileum and colon where bacterial fermentation occurs. The problem should be recognized from a careful history, and is easily corrected by changing the dietary management. Milk is renowned for causing diarrhoea in adult dogs and occasionally cats, although it is not common in the authors’ experience. Read more […]

Tremor and involuntary movements

Involuntary movement disorders result in some of the most dramatic clinical presentations in veterinary medicine. Classically, these disorders are present during periods of inactivity rather than during voluntary movement. Cerebellar disease, conversely, can result in apparent involuntary abnormalities during movement. Some involuntary movements are persistent while others are episodic. Certain involuntary movements have characteristics that allow for identification of specific causes, whereas others are only a reflection of dysfunction of the nervous or musculoskeletal systems. Clinically, it is important to first identify the type of involuntary movement present. Subsequently, a more directed approach can be used to establish the cause of the movement disorder. Clinical signs Involuntary movement disorders are less well classified in animals than in humans. Terms such as tics, twitches, shivering, shuddering and fasciculation are often used to describe episodic, irregular muscle contractions. They are usually manifested through abnormal motion of the limbs, trunk or head. There are seven forms of involuntary movement. Myoclonus Myoclonus is a shock-like contraction of a muscle or muscles that tends to occur repeatedly Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Pedigree Dog Breeding

Approximately 41 % of dogs in the UK are described by their owners as pedigrees (J. T. Murray unpublished telephone survey). Many such dogs are far from healthy, as has been highlighted both by the popular media (e.g. BBC 2008) and in a range of reports, reviews, and scientific papers. Breeding dogs primarily for their appearance has led to compromised health and welfare in two different ways, one resulting directly from selection for exaggerated physical features and the other, indirectly resulting in an increased incidence of disease (see also Duffy and Serpell, this volume). Exaggerated Physical Features Artificial selection has resulted in a wide variety of morphologies in different breeds of dog. Many breeds are anatomically modified in ways which compromise their physical health. The English bulldog is a regularly cited example of morphological extremes, resulting in locomotion difficulties, breathing problems, and an inability to mate or give birth without physical and/or surgical interventions (Advocates for Animals 2006). However, there are many other less visually obvious anatomical deformities in other breeds, ranging from overly long backs to heavily wrinkled skin, and flat faces that restrict breathing. Systematic Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Atlantoaxial instability Clinical signs: Onset of signs in dogs with the congenital form of the disease usually occurs in young animals (<2 years of age), though problems can develop at any age. Signs can develop acutely or gradually, and waxing and waning of signs is often reported – presumably a reflection of instability at the atlantoaxial junction causing repeated injury to the spinal cord. Signs include neck pain (variably present), ataxia, tetraparesis, and postural-reaction and conscious pro-prioceptive deficits with normal to increased muscle tone and myotatic reflexes in all four legs. In severe cases, animals can present with tetraplegia and difficulty in breathing and they may die acutely as a result of respiratory failure. Pathogenesis: The atlas (first cervical vertebra) and axis (second cervical vertebra) are bound together by ligaments that run from the dens of the axis to the atlas and the skull, over the dens binding it to the floor of the atlas (the transverse ligament) and between the dorsal lamina of the atlas and the dorsal spinous process of the axis (). The dens is a bony projection from the cranial aspect of the body of the axis and develops from a separate growth plate. Subluxation of Read more […]

Anomalous diseases

Atlantoaxial instability Atlantoaxial instability can lead to subluxation of the first and second cervical vertebrae; the cranial aspect of the axis often rotates dorsally with respect to the atlas, into the vertebral canal. Subsequent spinal cord compression results in a variety of neurological signs, but may just cause cervical pain. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this disease are discussed in site. Chiari-like malformations Clinicalsigns:The condition may be acute orchronic, and can occur in dogs ranging from 6 months to 10 years of age. Clinical signs include neck pain, torticollis or scoliosis, spinal hyperaesthesia and neurological deficits relating to cervical spinal cord dysfunction. Intracranial signs, such as facial paresis and vestibular dysfunction, have also been reported. Paroxysmal involuntary scratching of the neck and flank has been associated with this condition. Pathogenesis: Chiari-like malformations are complex developmental disorders involving the caudal brainstem, cerebellum and the cranial cervical spinal cord. The human classification of Chiari type I necessitates elongation and caudal displacement of the cerebellartonsils(vermis and paravermal lobes) through the foramen Read more […]