Tag Archives: Irish Wolfhound

Congenital Deafness

Deafness that is present at or soon after birth may have either an acquired or a hereditary etiology and may occasionally occur in any puppy whether pure bred or mixed breed. Acquired deafness may be caused by viral infections, anoxia, or the ototoxic side effects of drugs or other materials. Because dogs and cats are born deaf, deafness in a puppy or kitten is not abnormal up to a certain age. In cats the earliest discriminating hearing tests were performed at the age of 7 days. Cochlear potential measurements from a round-window electrode were found to be conclusive about the presence or absence of hearing in cats over 7 days of age (). In dogs, hearing tests were performed from the age of 4 weeks () by means of cochlear potential measurements from round-window electrodes () or brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) (). Testing the Hearing of Young Puppies In our laboratory, two Irish wolfhound puppies and two beagle puppies were investigated for hearing from the third day after birth. Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAERs) were recorded from surface electrodes (Dantec) on the pinnae and the skin over the parietal bone on the midline. For the recording of air-conducted BAERs, each pup was placed in a Read more […]


the commonest endocrine disorder of the dog the acquired naturally occurring condition has not been documented in the cat although the extremely rare congenital form has been described the metabolically active thyroid hormones are L-thyroxine (T4) and L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Aetiology Primary congenital agenesis (rare) non-functional thyroid tumour (rare) lymphocytic thyroiditis; the most important cause (approximately 90%), an autoimmune disorder which results in thyroid destruction idiopathic thyroid necrosis and atrophy may represent the end stage of lymphocytic thyroiditis Secondary Less common than primary1 causes (less than 5%) TSH deficiency leading to inadequate stimulation of the thyroid gland with subsequent reduction in the production of thyroid hormone congenital hypopituitarism (usually in association with GH deficiency) pituitary neoplasia (may present with other signs, e.g. diabetes insipidus) Tertiary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency results in deficiency of TSH and reduction in thyroid hormone production due to hypothalamic lesions — extremely rare other equally rare causes of hypothyroidism include: iodine deficiency defects in thyroid Read more […]

Paraparesis: Vascular diseases

Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy Clinical signs: Neuroanatomical localization often is associated with the spinal cord intumescences but other spinal cord regions can be involved (). Thoracolumbar signs are more common than cervicothoracic. Clinical signs usually are associated with trauma or exercise. Asymmetrical lesion distribution () is a clinical feature due to the distribution of the blood vessels to the spinal cord parenchyma (); however, the lesion can be symmetrical. Symmetrical lesions more often are associated with loss of nociception. Spinal hyper-aesthesia can be present initially but is absent afterthe onset of ischaemia. Maximal neurological deficits usually occur within the first 24 hours. Dogs with lumbosacral intumescent involvement more often have loss of deep pain perception. Pathogenesis: FCE is characterized by acute spinal cord infarction caused by embolism of fibrocartilage identical to that of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc (). Many theories exist as to the pathophysiology for embolization (). Entry of disc material into the vascular system and embolization from the point of entry to the arteries and veins of the spinal cord has yet to be elucidated. Non-chohdrodystrophoid Read more […]

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), next to valvular endocardiosis, is the most commonly diagnosed cardiac disorder in dogs. In most cases the cause is not apparent; the most popular concept is that the aetiology for dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs is multifactorial. Cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in association with a deficiency of myocardial L-carnitine have been reported in one family of boxers suggesting that nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. L-Carnitine is necessary for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of cardiac muscle cells and a deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial energy production. More recently, it has been shown that some dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy have reduced plasma taurine levels. In humans, cardiomyopathy is associated with depression of the cellular Na+, K+-ATPase pump and a reduction (down regulation) of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors. Whether a similar situation exists in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy is not clear. A recent study reported no significant difference in the beta receptor density in four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy compared to normal dogs. Immune-mediated disease with the production of antibodies against altered Read more […]

Disorders of eyeball position and movement

As discussed previously, there is an intimate functional association between the innervation to the extraocular muscles and the vestibular system. The extraocular muscles are innervated by cranial nerve III (oculomotor), cranial nerve IV (trochlear) and cranial nerve VI (abducent) (). Any strabismus due to a lesion in one or more of these cranial nerves must be differentiated from lesions affecting the extraocular muscles (including traumatic rupture and extraocular myositis). • Lesions simultaneously affecting CNs III, IV and VI result in external ophthalmoplegia, and internal ophthalmoplegia if the pupillary constrictor (CN III) is affected. • Lesions with only cranial nerve III involvement may present with a ventrolateral strabismus; more rarely lesions may only affect single muscle groups, resulting in a strabismus opposite to the normal function of the denervated muscle. • Lesions affecting the trochlear nerve in isolation are extremely rare but, where they do occur, will result in loss of function of the ipsilateral dorsal oblique muscle (brainstem lesions may result in loss of function, ipsilateral or contralateral). The dorsal oblique muscle functions to rotate the dorsal portion of the globe nasally Read more […]

Bone Heart Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Cardiac Failure Heart problems usually relate to either valve disease or deterioration in the heart muscle. Both make the heart less efficient in maintaining circulation, with consequent congestion due to accumulation of abdominal fluid in severe cases. Some dogs develop a characteristic dry cough on exercise. Hot summer days mean added stress on dogs with faulty heart function, and fainting and collapse can easily occur if the dog stays in the sun, especially if the dog is also obese. Some infectious diseases result in deterioration of the heart muscle, but heart valve deterioration is usually associated with age, although the two diseases may occur simultaneously. Drugs are available for many heart conditions and suspected cases need veterinary attention sooner rather than later. With proper treatment and revised life style they need not be fatal. Parasitism caused by heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) can bring serious heart disorders. The parasite is widespread in the United States and in tropical areas of Asia and Africa. A mosquito is needed to complete the life-cycle of heart worms. Treatment and prevention are specialized areas of medicine, sometimes requiring surgical intervention. Endocarditis When Read more […]

Gastric Dilation – Torsion. Jaundice. Poisoning

Disease of Alimentary System Gastric Dilation/Torsion In certain types of dogs gas accumulates in the stomach so that it dilates to such an extent as to become a threat to life. Breeds usually affected by the disease, sometimes known as bloat, are particularly Bloodhounds, Great Danes, Irish Wolfhounds and Irish Setters. Other breeds, such as Basset Hounds and Boxers, are also affected, and it may also occur in Dachshunds and Pekingese. Dogs with gastric dilation usually make unsuccessful attempts to vomit and show an obvious, tight distension of the abdominal wall. If the condition is not resolved, the stomach may twist on its axis (torsion), trapping the gas and cutting off the blood supply to essential organs. A complete twist of the gut (volvulus) is life-threatening and needs urgent veterinary attention. Gastric Dilation is usually related to greedy feeders getting excited at meal times, with a tendency to overeat and to swallow air. Breeds likely to be affected should be fed smaller meals more frequently and outside periods of activity. A food bowl on to a low table is said to reduce the amount of air swallowed during feeding. Jaundice Liver failure or an obstruction in the excretion of bile can be caused by Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Hounds

Afghan Hounds Elbow dysplasia; Malformation of articular surfaces of proximal radius and ulna; Thyroid disorders American Foxhounds Spinal osteochondrois (affects the ability to run) Basenjis Hip dysplasia Basset Hounds Vertebral deformity with pressure necrosis results from anomaly of third cervical vertebra; Achondroplasia (foreleg lameness caused by anatomical irregularity; cartilage of growth plate grows in irregular directions and is scant); OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) (shoulder); Osteodystrophy; Radial carpal joint irregularity; Patella luxation, medial or lateral that produces lameness at four to six months of age; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Panostetis Beagles Hip dysplasia; Epiphyseal dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease) Black and Tan Coonhounds Hip dysplasia (high incidence); Polyradiculoneuritis; Coondog paralysis Bloodhounds Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Borzois Thyroid disorders Dachshunds IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Osteoporosis clinically similar to swimmers, with radiographs showing dense bones and abnormal bone resorption; UAP (ununited anconeal process); Patella luxation; Achondroplasia; Thyroid disorder English Foxhounds Osteochondrosis Read more […]