Tag Archives: Irish Setters

Gastric dilation and torsion

This condition preferentially affects the large deep-chested breeds of dog such as Bassett Hounds, German Shepherd dogs, St. Bernard, Irish Setters, Great Danes and Dobermans but Dachshunds may also be affected. There may be a predilection for young male dogs, but torsion has been observed in dogs from 2 to 10 years of age. The cause is not known but predisposing factors include; breed, use of dry cereal-based diets, overeating or drinking, stress, exercise and aerophagia (Table Predisposing causes for gastric torsion). Cereal-based diets fed as one large meal per day result in larger and heavier stomachs than those found in dogs fed tinned meat and biscuit. This predisposes the dog to gastric dilation and torsion (). It is also possible that disordered gastric motility may be involved. Torsions most often occur to the left or clockwise effectively sealing off the oesophagus and pylorus (). In our experience the mortality rate can exceed 68%. Table Predisposing causes for gastric torsion Breed Diet Overeating Stress, excitement Gastric stasis Aerophagia Motility disorder Lax gastric ligaments Normally the pylorus is held in position on the right of the abdomen by Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

Acute enteritis

Dietary diarrhoea Dogs in particular will tolerate a wide variety of diets, while cats tend to be fastidious and require a high protein diet. If the diet is changed suddenly, especially from a dried to a tinned food, then diarrhoea often follows for several days which will be self-limiting. Unfortunately most owners on observing the diarrhoea then change the diet, further exacerbating the problem. This leads to episodes of apparent relapsing acute diarrhoea although there is a history of frequent diet changes. Treatment simply involves the selection of a suitable standard diet fed at the correct rates without change or supplementation. Dogs are frequently fed high carbohydrate diets usually in the form of biscuit, potato or bread. High levels of cereal or potato in the diet, especially if not precooked will often lead to diarrhoea. This is because the carbohydate is not as digestible when uncooked and may reach the distal ileum and colon where bacterial fermentation occurs. The problem should be recognized from a careful history, and is easily corrected by changing the dietary management. Milk is renowned for causing diarrhoea in adult dogs and occasionally cats, although it is not common in the authors’ experience. Read more […]

Chronic small intestinal diseases

Parasitic enteritis Infestation with roundworms does occur especially in puppies and kittens. Where there is a heavy infestation in a puppy or kitten this may be associated with poor growth, distention of the abdomen and mucoid diarrhoea. They are rarely implicated in causing chronic diarrhoea in adult dogs and cats. The authors have examined faeces from many hundreds of dogs and cats as part of the investigation for chronic diarrhoea but detected roundworms in less than 5% of cases. Migrating larvae may cause damage to the lungs and liver especially if present in large numbers. Hookworm infestation in the UK usually involves Uncinaria spp. which are not blood-sucking like Ancylostoma spp. Both may be implicated in causing diarrhoea if present in large numbers, with associated colic and melaena. In addition to these signs if the damage caused to the mucosa is severe, then plasma proteins may be lost into the intestine. Tapeworms even when present in large numbers rarely cause diarrhoea. Diagnosis of roundworm infestation is made from examination of the faeces for ova. Where evidence of worms is detected, they should be treated and the animal reassessed at a later date, so that parasites can be definitively ruled Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Gastric Dilation – Torsion. Jaundice. Poisoning

Disease of Alimentary System Gastric Dilation/Torsion In certain types of dogs gas accumulates in the stomach so that it dilates to such an extent as to become a threat to life. Breeds usually affected by the disease, sometimes known as bloat, are particularly Bloodhounds, Great Danes, Irish Wolfhounds and Irish Setters. Other breeds, such as Basset Hounds and Boxers, are also affected, and it may also occur in Dachshunds and Pekingese. Dogs with gastric dilation usually make unsuccessful attempts to vomit and show an obvious, tight distension of the abdominal wall. If the condition is not resolved, the stomach may twist on its axis (torsion), trapping the gas and cutting off the blood supply to essential organs. A complete twist of the gut (volvulus) is life-threatening and needs urgent veterinary attention. Gastric Dilation is usually related to greedy feeders getting excited at meal times, with a tendency to overeat and to swallow air. Breeds likely to be affected should be fed smaller meals more frequently and outside periods of activity. A food bowl on to a low table is said to reduce the amount of air swallowed during feeding. Jaundice Liver failure or an obstruction in the excretion of bile can be caused by Read more […]

Colitis, a Specific Cause of Diarrhoea

Disease of Alimentary System Colitis The colon in the lower bowel is primarily concerned with reabsorption of water as the products of digestion move down the alimentary tract. Any influence which leaves water within the bowel will contribute to the water content of the dog’s motions, which can vary from slightly wet faeces to frank diarrhoea if the colon becomes inflamed. Any blood present is usually fresh, staining the motions red, and often there is straining, discomfort and a degree of pain. Motions may contain mucus, with little evidence of unabsorbed fat. Veterinary examination is necessary to establish the several clinical conditions. Boxers appear to have a predisposition to two types of ulcerative colitis: Histiocytic Ulcerative Colitis, which does not respond well to treatment; and Idiopathic Ulcerative Colitis, which may recover with appropriate treatment. Dietary treatment has little effect on lower bowel conditions; the underlying cause for colitis must be established. Colitis, inflammation of the large intestine, is responsible for half of all cases of recurrent or Persistent diarrhoea in the dog. Inflammation of the colon lining prevents residual vvater from being absorbed efficiently, thus creating this Read more […]

Muscular and Skeletal Diseases

Arthritis Disc Protrusion Hip Dysplasia Canine hip and Elbow Dysplasia Scottie Cramp Swimmer Tetany Fractures Wobbler’s Syndrome, Surgical Success Arthritis Joint degeneration may be a result of deterioration with age, physical damage or infectious disease. Where changes occur in the cartilage which forms the articular part of the joint they are usually degenerative rather than inflammatory. Inflammatory changes occur with generalized infections or when one or two joints only are affected by an injury. The more inflammation the more pain with movement. Infection and injury, although more painful, may often result in eventual healing. With degenerative changes there is usually less inflammation, but more limitation of movement. Antibiotics are extensively used in the treatment of joint infections so as to prevent changes which will permanently incapacitate the dog. joint damage usually needs radiographic examination for a proper diagnosis and evaluation of the extent of damage. The commonest joints to show pathological changes are the stifle and the hip in the hindleg, and the shoulder and carpus in the foreleg. Some hip problems can be resolved by completely excising the head of the femur where it sits in the hip Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Sporting Dogs

Brittany Patella luxation: Hip dysplasia Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Clumber Spaniels Hip dysplasia Cocker Spaniels (American) Hip dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Anury (no tail, no caudal vertebrae); Brachury (short tail) Curly-Coated Retrievers Thyroid disorders; Calcium metabolic disorders; Juvenile osteoporosis. English Cocker Spaniels Swimmers syndrome (i.e. the inability to stand at four to six weeks of age) English Setters Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias English Springer Spaniels Hip dysplasia; Myasthenia gravis Field Spaniels Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Flat-Coated Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Patella luxation; Neoplasias German Shorthaired Pointers Pannus; Neoplasias German Wirehaired Pointers Hip dysplasia; Toe fractures Golden Retrievers Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of elbow; Muscular dystrophy; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias Gordon Setters Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Irish Setters Generalized myopathy (i.e. stiff gait and other difficulties); Carpal (pastern luxation; Read more […]