Tag Archives: Irish Setter

The Pancreas

Inflammatory Pancreatic Disease The pancreas is a unique organ possessing both exocrine (digestive) and endocrine (hormonal) functions. Inflammatory pancreatic disease affecting only the exocrine portion is extremely uncommon in young dogs and cats (). Consequently, inflammatory pancreatic disease, that is, acute pancreatitis or relapsing pancreatitis that more commonly affects older dogs and cats, has been rarely identified in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. The likely causes of inflammatory pancreatic disease in the young dog and cat are abdominal trauma and infectious agents. Abdominal trauma may induce pancreatitis in dogs that are traumatized by motor vehicles and in cats that have fallen or jumped from high places (high-rise syndrome) (). In addition, abdominal surgery may result in acute pancreatitis due to traumatic injury to the pancreas (spearing the pancreas with a surgical instrument) or excessive manipulation of die pancreas. Infectious agents can occasionally contribute to inflammatory pancreatic disease. Pancreatic necrosis can be found on postmortem examination of an occasional dog afflicted with canine parvovirus infection (). It is not known whether the canine parvovirus is directly Read more […]

Gastric neoplasia

Gastric neoplasia is rare in dogs and cats compared with man. The types of tumour detected in small animals include polyps, adenomas, leiomyomas, adenocarcinomas and lymphosarcomas. The most frequent tumour in dogs is the adenocarcinoma and the most frequent site is the antrum or pylorus of the stomach. Lymphosarcoma is the commonest feline tumour although this is not frequently seen. Tumours frequently ulcerate so symptomatology may be similar to that observed with gastric ulceration, and endoscopically they appear very similar so histopathology of surgical biopsy is essential to differentiate which is present. Tumours have been observed more frequently in Rough Collies, Irish Setter and Terrier breeds, the mean age being 10 years and possibly more common in males than females (). Clinical diagnosis Classically there is a history of chronic vomiting, polydipsia and weight loss. The signs may appear over a short period of time or may develop more slowly over many months. The vomitus may be gastric juice and saliva or may contain food. There is no strong correlation between eating and vomiting but it certainly occurs in some individuals. Vomitus may also contain fresh or changed blood (coffee grounds) but this is not Read more […]

Gastric dilation and torsion

This condition preferentially affects the large deep-chested breeds of dog such as Bassett Hounds, German Shepherd dogs, St. Bernard, Irish Setters, Great Danes and Dobermans but Dachshunds may also be affected. There may be a predilection for young male dogs, but torsion has been observed in dogs from 2 to 10 years of age. The cause is not known but predisposing factors include; breed, use of dry cereal-based diets, overeating or drinking, stress, exercise and aerophagia (Table Predisposing causes for gastric torsion). Cereal-based diets fed as one large meal per day result in larger and heavier stomachs than those found in dogs fed tinned meat and biscuit. This predisposes the dog to gastric dilation and torsion (). It is also possible that disordered gastric motility may be involved. Torsions most often occur to the left or clockwise effectively sealing off the oesophagus and pylorus (). In our experience the mortality rate can exceed 68%. Table Predisposing causes for gastric torsion Breed Diet Overeating Stress, excitement Gastric stasis Aerophagia Motility disorder Lax gastric ligaments Normally the pylorus is held in position on the right of the abdomen by Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

Acute enteritis

Dietary diarrhoea Dogs in particular will tolerate a wide variety of diets, while cats tend to be fastidious and require a high protein diet. If the diet is changed suddenly, especially from a dried to a tinned food, then diarrhoea often follows for several days which will be self-limiting. Unfortunately most owners on observing the diarrhoea then change the diet, further exacerbating the problem. This leads to episodes of apparent relapsing acute diarrhoea although there is a history of frequent diet changes. Treatment simply involves the selection of a suitable standard diet fed at the correct rates without change or supplementation. Dogs are frequently fed high carbohydrate diets usually in the form of biscuit, potato or bread. High levels of cereal or potato in the diet, especially if not precooked will often lead to diarrhoea. This is because the carbohydate is not as digestible when uncooked and may reach the distal ileum and colon where bacterial fermentation occurs. The problem should be recognized from a careful history, and is easily corrected by changing the dietary management. Milk is renowned for causing diarrhoea in adult dogs and occasionally cats, although it is not common in the authors’ experience. Read more […]

Chronic small intestinal diseases

Parasitic enteritis Infestation with roundworms does occur especially in puppies and kittens. Where there is a heavy infestation in a puppy or kitten this may be associated with poor growth, distention of the abdomen and mucoid diarrhoea. They are rarely implicated in causing chronic diarrhoea in adult dogs and cats. The authors have examined faeces from many hundreds of dogs and cats as part of the investigation for chronic diarrhoea but detected roundworms in less than 5% of cases. Migrating larvae may cause damage to the lungs and liver especially if present in large numbers. Hookworm infestation in the UK usually involves Uncinaria spp. which are not blood-sucking like Ancylostoma spp. Both may be implicated in causing diarrhoea if present in large numbers, with associated colic and melaena. In addition to these signs if the damage caused to the mucosa is severe, then plasma proteins may be lost into the intestine. Tapeworms even when present in large numbers rarely cause diarrhoea. Diagnosis of roundworm infestation is made from examination of the faeces for ova. Where evidence of worms is detected, they should be treated and the animal reassessed at a later date, so that parasites can be definitively ruled Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Gastric Dilation – Torsion. Jaundice. Poisoning

Disease of Alimentary System Gastric Dilation/Torsion In certain types of dogs gas accumulates in the stomach so that it dilates to such an extent as to become a threat to life. Breeds usually affected by the disease, sometimes known as bloat, are particularly Bloodhounds, Great Danes, Irish Wolfhounds and Irish Setters. Other breeds, such as Basset Hounds and Boxers, are also affected, and it may also occur in Dachshunds and Pekingese. Dogs with gastric dilation usually make unsuccessful attempts to vomit and show an obvious, tight distension of the abdominal wall. If the condition is not resolved, the stomach may twist on its axis (torsion), trapping the gas and cutting off the blood supply to essential organs. A complete twist of the gut (volvulus) is life-threatening and needs urgent veterinary attention. Gastric Dilation is usually related to greedy feeders getting excited at meal times, with a tendency to overeat and to swallow air. Breeds likely to be affected should be fed smaller meals more frequently and outside periods of activity. A food bowl on to a low table is said to reduce the amount of air swallowed during feeding. Jaundice Liver failure or an obstruction in the excretion of bile can be caused by Read more […]