Tag Archives: Greyhound

Distemper in Dogs

Distemper in dogs have been mentioned in 1824 This scourge to the canine race, now so general and common, does not appear to have been known a century ago; and even yet, throughout the European continent, it is described rather as an occasional epidemic which visits the different countries every three or four years, than as a fixed complaint, like the measles or hooping cough in the human (In opposition to this late appearance of the distemper, it has been conjectured that it was not unknown to the antients, and was by them called the Angina, being one of three diseases to which dogs, according to them, were liable; Madness and Podagra forming the otber two. But an attentive examination of the symptoms, as detailed by Aristotle, Aelian, and such other antient authors as have left us their observations on the canine race, will clearly show that the distemper, as it is known among us, was unknown to them. Their angina appears to have been an accidental epidemic, which confined its attacks almost wholly to the throat, producing faucial imposthumes, like strangles in horses, or quinsy in the human; but the grand characteristic, of primary and continued discharge from the nasal mucous membranes, is wholly unnoticed. — Read more […]

Bedlington Terrier

History and Development The exact origin of the Bedlington Terrier cannot be definitely ascertained, but it is generally believed that it appeared at about the same time as the Dandie Dinmont. Or similar obscurity is the combination of breeds that went into its making. The body contours of the Bedlington point to a relationship with a hound breed. The Otterhound has been suggested as a possible forebear but this is something that can only be guessed at, and the Greyhound or Whippet seems more likely. In addition to hound blood, the Bedlington probably goes back to some type of now extinct otter terrier; this ancestor is probably shared with the Dandic, as old prints of Dandies and Bedlingtons show a striking similarity, although they are not so alike today. In the latter part of the 18th century, a breed or strain of terriers existed in Northumberland in and around the Rothbury Forest, which was held in high esteem in the neighborhood for its excellent qualities and especially its gameness. Their matings in the first place were probably arranged entirely with a view to perpetuate these qualities, rather than their outward appearance; to get dogs with strength, courage, endurance, nose and the like. Whatever it Read more […]

Greyhound

History and Development There is little doubt that the Greyhound is one of the very few breeds which can claim to be true. One of the oldest, it not the oldest, of sporting breeds, it has been recorded as the Gazehound, the hound which runs on the sight of its quarry. This is undoubtedly so; it has very keen eyesight, but this does not mean that the Greyhound is not well equipped to hunt and scent its quarry. It is a theory held by some that the Greyhound family is nearly as old as civilization. There are wall-paintings in some tombs in the Valley of the Nile which portray dogs of the greyhound type but, of course, one cannot elude the possibility that the Saluki also could be the animal illustrated. Mention of the breed occurs in the Bible, in the Book of Solomon, Chapter XXX, Verses 29-31: – There be three things that go well, yea four that are comely in going, a lion which is strongest among beasts and turneth not from any: A greyhound, an he goat also, and a king against whom there is no rising up. In this ancient world of the Bible, caravans of the merchants and nobles conveyed these hounds along the valleys of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates and throughout ancient Iraq and Persia to the colder climate Read more […]

Congenital Deafness

Deafness that is present at or soon after birth may have either an acquired or a hereditary etiology and may occasionally occur in any puppy whether pure bred or mixed breed. Acquired deafness may be caused by viral infections, anoxia, or the ototoxic side effects of drugs or other materials. Because dogs and cats are born deaf, deafness in a puppy or kitten is not abnormal up to a certain age. In cats the earliest discriminating hearing tests were performed at the age of 7 days. Cochlear potential measurements from a round-window electrode were found to be conclusive about the presence or absence of hearing in cats over 7 days of age (). In dogs, hearing tests were performed from the age of 4 weeks () by means of cochlear potential measurements from round-window electrodes () or brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) (). Testing the Hearing of Young Puppies In our laboratory, two Irish wolfhound puppies and two beagle puppies were investigated for hearing from the third day after birth. Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAERs) were recorded from surface electrodes (Dantec) on the pinnae and the skin over the parietal bone on the midline. For the recording of air-conducted BAERs, each pup was placed in a Read more […]

Subcutaneous Mycoses

infection by fungi of viable skin, often traumatically induced very rare in the UK examples include eumycotic mycetoma, phaeohyphomycosis, pythiosis, protothecosis and sporotrichosis identification of these fungi should be undertaken only by an experienced veterinary mycologist Eumycotic mycetoma rare in dogs and cats trauma-induced, may involve the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia and bone causal fungi include Allescheria boydii and Curvularia geniculata causal actinomycetes include Actinomyces and Nocardia Clinical features frequently there is a triad of swelling, draining fistulae and granules usually localized lesion, typically on a foot may be painful and swollen Diagnosis culture on plain Sabouraud’s agar histopathology: demonstration of fungal elements with specialized stains such as PAS Differential diagnosis abscesses foreign body reactions neoplasms Treatment radical surgical excision there is no effective medical therapy Phaeohyphomycosis mainly cats, a few cases have been reported in dogs rare causal fungi in cats include Drechslera spicifera, Phialophora verrucosa, Moniella suaveloens and Exophiala jeanselmii causal fungi in dogs Read more […]

General Anaesthesia in Geriatric Patients

Preparation Animals should be fasted for 12 hours, with water being withdrawn 1-2 hours beforehand. Water deprivation in old animals can precipitate a uraemic crisis so overnight deprivation is not recommended if there is evidence of renal incompetence and an i.v. fluid line should be established before the administration of a sedative or anaesthetic. All patients should be weighed before computation of drug dosages to avoid errors. If the animal is obese the lean body weight should be estimated. Premedication Acepromazine can be given in low doses (0.02-0.05 mg/kg i.m.) but should not be used in the presence of cardiovascular disease such as endocardiosis and congestive heart failure, as it can cause rapid hypotension. Acepromazine should also be avoided in dogs prone to seizures, and it is contraindicated in the presence of renal impairment. Intravenous administration can cause profound hypotension and it should only be used by this route with great care. The author has witnessed a geriatric dog collapsing and dying immediately following the intravenous administration of acepromazine. Xylazine and medetomidine should only be used with extreme care in geriatric canine and feline patients because they can cause Read more […]

Respiratory System

The respiratory system (apparatus respiratorius) uses the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and smaller passageways to bring air to the alveoli or sites of gaseous exchange within the lungs. Various structures associated with these passageways modify or regulate the flow of air, serve as olfactory receptors, facilitate water and heat exchange, and make phonation possible. The nasal cavity and the conchae (also called turbinates) warm and moisten the air and remove foreign material. The pharynx serves as a passageway for both the respiratory and the digestive systems. The larynx guards the entrance to the trachea, functions in vocalization, and regulates both the inspiration and the expiration of air. The trachea is a cartilage-reinforced tube lined by ciliated epithelium. It divides into principal bronchi and continues into the two lungs as lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. The terminal divisions are located in the elastic, well-vascularized lungs, which passively expand and collapse in response to changes in intrathoracic pressure, created by the action of the muscles of the diaphragm and thoracic wall. The nose (nasus), in a broad Read more […]

Lungs

The lung (pulmo) () is the organ in which oxygen from the atmosphere and carbon dioxide from the blood are exchanged. The lungs serve a passive function in the mechanical act of respiration. The diaphragm, when it contracts, enlarges the pleural cavity by moving caudally. When the intercostal muscles contract and draw the ribs cranially, the size of the thoracic cavity is also increased, and thus air is drawn into the lungs because of the negative pressure that is produced. Aiding in expulsion of the air from the lungs are the abdominal muscles, which contract and force the abdominal viscera against the caudal surface of the diaphragm. The efects of age on lung function and structure were reviewed by Mauderly and Hahn (1982). In general there is considerable fibrosis and loss of function in the lungs of old dogs. Robinson (1982) summarized some functional consequences of species diferences in lung anatomy. There is no explanation for the great variation seen in lung lobation of domestic and wild mammals. The two lungs (pulmo sinister et dexter) possess many features in common. Each has a slightly concave base (basis pulmonis), which lies adjacent to the diaphragm, and an apex (apex pulmonis), which lies in the thoracic Read more […]

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The incidence of primary (idiopathic) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is much lower in dogs than it is in cats. Males appear to be predominantly affected and there may be a higher incidence in boxers and German shepherd dogs. The disease is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum. The aetiology of primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been determined. Pathophysiology Myocardial hypertrophy results in decreased left ventricular compliance (increased myocardial *stiffness*) and diastolic dysfunction. Systolic function is usually adequate. Myocardial hypertrophy results in increased myocardial tension and afterload. This in turn leads to progressive myocardial isehaemia and the development of cardiac arrhythmias which are usually ventricular in origin. In most cases the hypertrophy is asymmetric with disproportionate thickening of the inter ventricular septum compared to the left ventricular free wall (at necropsy, septal to left ventricular free wall ratio in affected cases is greater than 1.1:1). Asymmetric hypertrophy may cause functional left ventricular outflow obstruction. Ventricular hypertrophy may also be associated with focal or diffuse endocardial Read more […]

Testes

The testis, or male gonad (), is oval in shape and located within the scrotum. The length of the testis in a 25-pound dog averages 3 cm and the width 2 cm. The fresh organ weighs approximately 8 g. In normal position, the testis of the dog is situated obliquely, with the long axis running dorsocaudally. The epididymis is adherent to the dorsolateral surface of the organ, with its head located at the cranial end and its tail at the caudal extremity of the testis. The surface of the testis is invested by the tunica albuginea, a dense, white fibrous capsule. Covering the testis most immediately is the visceral vaginal tunic, a serous membrane continuous with the peritoneum of the spermatic cord and the abdominal cavity. The tunica albuginea joins the centrally located mediastinum testis by means of interlobular connective tissue lamellae (septula testis), which converge centrally. The mediastinum testis is a cord of connective tissue running lengthwise through the middle of the testis. The lobuli testes (wedge-shaped portions of testicular parenchyma) are bounded by the septula. The lobuli contain the convoluted seminiferous tubules (tubuli seminiferi contorti), a large collection of twisted canals. Spermatozoa are Read more […]