Tag Archives: Golden Retrievers

Congenital and Hereditary Anomalies of the Ureters

Ureteral Agenesis Ureteral agenesis is the congenital absence of one or both ureters due to incomplete ureteral bud formation. Unilateral ureteral agenesis is the most common form observed in dogs and cats and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral renal aplasia (). Ureteral Duplication Ureteral duplication is a congenital disorder involving complete or partial duplication of one ureter. This disorder has been associated with a duplexed kidney and a supernumerary kidney in dogs; ureteral duplication has not been observed in cats (). Ureteral Valves Congenital ureteral valves are persistent transverse folds of vestigial mucosa and smooth muscle fibers forming annular, semiannular, or diaphragmatic lesions in the ureter (). Semiannular ureteral valves have been described in a 6-month-old female collie with unilateral ureterectasis, hydronephrosis, and urinary incontinence (). The etiopathogenesis of urinary incontinence associated with ureteral valves in this case is uncertain. Ectopic Ureters Ureteral ectopia is a congenital anomaly in which one or both ureters terminate abnormally in the urinary bladder. Intramural ectopic ureters contact and enter the bladder wall normally but continue submucosally through the Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

Pregnancy

Physiology and Endocrinology The eggs released by the bitch are fertilized in the uterine tubes and move into the uterus 8 to 9 days after ovulation. The conceptus implants and the placenta begin to be formed 16 to 18 days after ovulation. High concentrations of progesterone must be present throughout pregnancy. Progesterone during pregnancy decreases uterine contractility; stimulates secretions of the endometrial glands, which presumably provide nutrients to maintain the conceptus before implantation; and stimulates mammary development. Prolactin concentrations begin to rise at midgestation. Concentration of relaxin, released from the placenta, also rises beginning at midgestation (). The body of the bitch responds to the presence of the enlarged uterus and developing fetuses with processes designed to maintain function in the bitch while promoting development and growth of the puppies. Physiologic changes in the bitch that occur during normal pregnancy include the following: • Increased heart rate • Increased packed cell volume (% of the blood made up of red blood cells) • Increased oxygen consumption • Slower gastric emptying time • Increased blood flow to the kidney Superfecundation Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Aggressive Behavior

Characteristics of Dogs That Bite: Age and Sex The etiology of aggressive behavior presents considerable variation from dog to dog. Aggressive behavior is most frequently exhibited by socially mature and intact male dogs (), but young puppies can have serious precocious aggression problems, as well. Mugford (1984) reported that among 50 English cocker spaniels the mean average age of dogs with dominance-related aggression was 7.4 months (range, 3 to 24 months). In another group of golden retrievers treated by Mugford (1987), 24 with aggression problems averaged 2.9 years of age (range, 0.7 to 8.0 years). Of the 24 dogs treated by Mugford, 19 were males, two of which had been castrated. Beaver (1983) found that of 120 dogs with aggression problems (various diagnoses) the mean age was 3 years (range, 9 weeks to 11 years). She reported that 60.1% of the dogs were intact males (14% castrated), with 15.4% intact females (10.5% spayed). Wright (1985) found that the average age of dogs involved in severe attacks was 3 years (range, 0.67 to 10.5 years). All 16 dogs were males. These statistics suggest that considerable variation exists with respect to the time of onset associated with aggression problems. Although most dogs Read more […]

Pedigree Dog Breeding

Approximately 41 % of dogs in the UK are described by their owners as pedigrees (J. T. Murray unpublished telephone survey). Many such dogs are far from healthy, as has been highlighted both by the popular media (e.g. BBC 2008) and in a range of reports, reviews, and scientific papers. Breeding dogs primarily for their appearance has led to compromised health and welfare in two different ways, one resulting directly from selection for exaggerated physical features and the other, indirectly resulting in an increased incidence of disease (see also Duffy and Serpell, this volume). Exaggerated Physical Features Artificial selection has resulted in a wide variety of morphologies in different breeds of dog. Many breeds are anatomically modified in ways which compromise their physical health. The English bulldog is a regularly cited example of morphological extremes, resulting in locomotion difficulties, breathing problems, and an inability to mate or give birth without physical and/or surgical interventions (Advocates for Animals 2006). However, there are many other less visually obvious anatomical deformities in other breeds, ranging from overly long backs to heavily wrinkled skin, and flat faces that restrict breathing. Systematic Read more […]

Decreased vision with pupillary light reflex deficits

Concurrent impaired vision and pupillary light reflex deficits are suggestive of a lesion affecting the proximal portion of the visual pathway, from the retina to just prior to the lateral geniculate nucleus, which is common to both the visual pathways and the pupillary light reflex pathway. Retinal, optic disc and optic nerve lesions Unilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision in the affected eye and loss of the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex on stimulating the affected eye. Both the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex should still be present on stimulating the normal eye. Bilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision, mydriasis and loss of the pupillary light reflex (both the direct and consensual reflexes) in both eyes. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration: SARD is characterized by an acute loss of vision (although in some cases this may develop over a few days), and occurs occasionally in dogs in the UK (). Affected dogs are typically adult (middle-aged), can be of pedigree or mixed breed descent, and present bilaterally blind with dilated unresponsive pupils. In the acute stages no abnormalities are evident on ophthalmoscopic examination, but overtime (weeks Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Sporting Dogs

Brittany Patella luxation: Hip dysplasia Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Clumber Spaniels Hip dysplasia Cocker Spaniels (American) Hip dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Anury (no tail, no caudal vertebrae); Brachury (short tail) Curly-Coated Retrievers Thyroid disorders; Calcium metabolic disorders; Juvenile osteoporosis. English Cocker Spaniels Swimmers syndrome (i.e. the inability to stand at four to six weeks of age) English Setters Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias English Springer Spaniels Hip dysplasia; Myasthenia gravis Field Spaniels Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Flat-Coated Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Patella luxation; Neoplasias German Shorthaired Pointers Pannus; Neoplasias German Wirehaired Pointers Hip dysplasia; Toe fractures Golden Retrievers Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of elbow; Muscular dystrophy; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias Gordon Setters Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Irish Setters Generalized myopathy (i.e. stiff gait and other difficulties); Carpal (pastern luxation; Read more […]

Complex inherited traits

Not all polygenic characters can be classified into grades; some, such as epilepsy, are all-or-nothing traits in that the dog is either normal or abnormal. Such traits, known as threshold traits, are difficult to work with but can respond to selection. Anyone purchasing a dog in a breed in which polygenic defects are common should ensure that parental stock are evaluated. It would, for example, be foolish to purchase breeds like German Shepherd Dogs, Labradors, Golden Retrievers or the giant breeds like Newfoundlands and St. Bernards without seeking hip scores from the British Veterinary Association/German Shepherd Dog League or their equivalent in other countries. A dog is acquired for its virtues rather than for its defects, but virtues are different things to different owners. Sound character is the most important trait of any dog whether it is acquired as a family pet or as a potential show or working dog. In working breeds it should be possible to obtain a dog of sound character and working ability as well as beautiful looks, but in some breeds working and show strains have tended to diverge, polarizing in two quite different looking animals. Most of the aspects governing so-called beauty, character and working Read more […]

Spaying : Should Have Had Her Spayed!

Owning a dog is a huge responsibility. Basic care and maintenance are sometimes equivalent to a full time job, so if you consider the decision to breed your female and raise a litter, you’ll really have your hands full! For some Gundog owners the decision not to breed their female dog is simple and decisive… and the young dog has surgery before her first heat cycle. But for others the finality of having their female “fixed” is just too uncomfortable. What if she turns out to be that once-in-a-lifetime super dog and everyone who sees her in the field wants a pup at a “name-your-price” fee? Lots of questions, lots of “what ifs”, and lots of advice from other dog owners…. let’s take a few minutes and make some spaying facts clear; any decision is made more convincingly if at first we get the data right. To spay your female dog is to remove both ovaries and the uterus; the medical term is ovario-hysterectomy. (There is no such thing as SPADE or SPADED, the correct terms are SPAY or SPAYED). It is major intra-abdominal surgery performed under general anesthesia. If it isn’t done precisely and in a sterile environment the outcome can he disastrous. During my career I’ve never considered any spay “routine”; every one is Read more […]