Tag Archives: French Bulldog

Bronchi

The bronchial tree (arbor bronchialis) () begins at the bifurcation of the trachea by the formation of a right and a left principal bronchus (bronchus principals [dexter et sinister]). Each principal bronchus divides into lobar bronchi  (bronchi lobares), formerly secondary bronchi, which is the basis for the identification of the lung lobes. These supply the various lobes of the lung and are named according to the lobe supplied. Within the lobe of the lung the lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi (bronchi segmentales), which are sometimes referred to as tertiary bronchi. The segmental bronchi and the lung tissue that they ventilate are known as bronchopulmonary segments (segmenta bronchopulmonalia). Ishaq (1980) studied 37 pairs of dog lungs and suggested a system for designating the bronchi. Schlesinger and McFadden (1981) discuss the morphometry of the proximal bronchial tree in six mammalian species. Adjacent bronchopulmonary segments normally communicate with each other in the dog. Various injection and reconstruction techniques have been employed to delineate these segments in the dog (). For bronchoscopic purposes Amis and McKiernan (1986) described a system of letters and numbers to identify lobar, segmental, Read more […]

Challenges in Measuring Dog Welfare

One of the factors hampering our ability to protect and improve dog welfare is the relative infancy of its measurement in this species. Taking each of the elements in turn, measuring health presents few problems: advanced canine veterinary techniques mean that health can reliably easily be assessed, by professionals. However, many owners’ apparent inability to recognise pain or gauge quality of life (PDSA 2011), and the lack of centralised records of morbidity and mortality in most countries means that assessment on a population level is well-nigh impossible. Whilst ethology provides us with knowledge and methods by which to record canine behaviour, the difficulty in making valid comparison with ‘normal behaviour’ in their wild counterparts limits their use. Challenges abound when it comes to assessing feelings. It is now widely believed that a critical element of welfare assessment is how the animal feels, yet it is impossible to ask the animal directly. Hence scientists working on many species use a range of proxy measures, or ‘indicator variables’ aimed at assessing feelings indirectly. These primarily fall into two categories, physiological and behavioural, both of which have challenges in all species Read more […]

Colitis, a Specific Cause of Diarrhoea

Disease of Alimentary System Colitis The colon in the lower bowel is primarily concerned with reabsorption of water as the products of digestion move down the alimentary tract. Any influence which leaves water within the bowel will contribute to the water content of the dog’s motions, which can vary from slightly wet faeces to frank diarrhoea if the colon becomes inflamed. Any blood present is usually fresh, staining the motions red, and often there is straining, discomfort and a degree of pain. Motions may contain mucus, with little evidence of unabsorbed fat. Veterinary examination is necessary to establish the several clinical conditions. Boxers appear to have a predisposition to two types of ulcerative colitis: Histiocytic Ulcerative Colitis, which does not respond well to treatment; and Idiopathic Ulcerative Colitis, which may recover with appropriate treatment. Dietary treatment has little effect on lower bowel conditions; the underlying cause for colitis must be established. Colitis, inflammation of the large intestine, is responsible for half of all cases of recurrent or Persistent diarrhoea in the dog. Inflammation of the colon lining prevents residual vvater from being absorbed efficiently, thus creating this Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Breed Action

In some breeds, admitting to the occurrence of an inherited defect is hazardous. Many breeders will openly condemn those who confess to having had a problem. It is as if breeders believe that silence will make the defect go away. This is clearly not the case, indeed, it is more likely that defects will spread. It is far more mature to admit to problems and collectively try to solve them. In the short term there may be heartache and economic loss for some, but in the long term the breed will benefit. It is crucial that breeders do not simply rely on pedigree data vvhen trying to evaluate problems. If a defect is recessive or suspected as being recessive, then the need is not only for five generation pedigrees of affected animals but also numbers of the litter born, their sexes status and, in the case of defects seen in later life, the age at examination. Given such data, a geneticist can help a breed examine the problem in depth. Given a list of “affected” pedigrees only on is in danger of “tracing the defect to a certain dog” without being aware that all pedigrees, affected and normal, trace to him. Any widely used stud might appear in “affected” pedigree without actually being the source of the problem though in some Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Non-Sporting Dogs

American Eskimo Dogs Hip dysplasia Bichons Frises Patella luxation Boston Terriers Neoplasias; Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Swimmers syndrome, the inability to stand at four to six weeks; Vertebral abnormalities Bulldogs Spina bifida, caused by ununited neural arches; Neoplausa; Swimmers syndrome, the inability to stand at four to six weeks; Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Flaccid shoulder joints; Thyroid disorders; Vertebral abnormalites Chinese Shar-Peis Patella luxation; Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Swollen hock syndrome Chow Chows Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Dalmatians Muscular dystrophy Finnish Spitz Patella luxation French Bulldogs Hemivertebrae, which is the asymmetric abnormal development of vertebrae, resulting in scoliosis and crowding of one half of the body, producing a wedge-shape. It often results in neonatal death or spinal cord compression in older puppies. Keeshonds Thyroid and other endocrine disorders, primary hyperparathyroidism in older dogs; Patella luxation; Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias Lhasa Apsos Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Hip dysplasia Poodles (Miniature) Dwarfism; Hypoplasia of dens; Atypical pannus; Patella luxation; Shoulder luxation; Read more […]