Tag Archives: English Springer Spaniel

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Aggressive Behavior

Characteristics of Dogs That Bite: Age and Sex The etiology of aggressive behavior presents considerable variation from dog to dog. Aggressive behavior is most frequently exhibited by socially mature and intact male dogs (), but young puppies can have serious precocious aggression problems, as well. Mugford (1984) reported that among 50 English cocker spaniels the mean average age of dogs with dominance-related aggression was 7.4 months (range, 3 to 24 months). In another group of golden retrievers treated by Mugford (1987), 24 with aggression problems averaged 2.9 years of age (range, 0.7 to 8.0 years). Of the 24 dogs treated by Mugford, 19 were males, two of which had been castrated. Beaver (1983) found that of 120 dogs with aggression problems (various diagnoses) the mean age was 3 years (range, 9 weeks to 11 years). She reported that 60.1% of the dogs were intact males (14% castrated), with 15.4% intact females (10.5% spayed). Wright (1985) found that the average age of dogs involved in severe attacks was 3 years (range, 0.67 to 10.5 years). All 16 dogs were males. These statistics suggest that considerable variation exists with respect to the time of onset associated with aggression problems. Although most dogs Read more […]

Pedigree Dog Breeding

Approximately 41 % of dogs in the UK are described by their owners as pedigrees (J. T. Murray unpublished telephone survey). Many such dogs are far from healthy, as has been highlighted both by the popular media (e.g. BBC 2008) and in a range of reports, reviews, and scientific papers. Breeding dogs primarily for their appearance has led to compromised health and welfare in two different ways, one resulting directly from selection for exaggerated physical features and the other, indirectly resulting in an increased incidence of disease (see also Duffy and Serpell, this volume). Exaggerated Physical Features Artificial selection has resulted in a wide variety of morphologies in different breeds of dog. Many breeds are anatomically modified in ways which compromise their physical health. The English bulldog is a regularly cited example of morphological extremes, resulting in locomotion difficulties, breathing problems, and an inability to mate or give birth without physical and/or surgical interventions (Advocates for Animals 2006). However, there are many other less visually obvious anatomical deformities in other breeds, ranging from overly long backs to heavily wrinkled skin, and flat faces that restrict breathing. Systematic Read more […]

The Eyeball

The eyeball (bulbus oculi) is formed by three concentric coats: the fibrous tunic (tunica fibrosa bulbi), the middle vascular tunic (tunica vasculosa bulbi), and the inner nervous tunic (tunica interna bulbi). In the dog, the eyeball is nearly spherical, differing little in its sagittal, transverse, and vertical diameters. The size of the eyeball varies among breeds, but the diameter is usually approximately 20 to 22 mm. In one study, the radius of the canine eye varied across breeds from 9.56 to 11.57 mm and was correlated with the width and length of the skull. The transparent cornea forms the anterior one-fourth of the eyeball, and because it has a smaller radius of curvature (approximately 8.5 to 9 mm) than the rest of the eye, it bulges anteriorly. The vertex of the cornea is designated the anterior pole of the eye (polus anterior). The point directly opposite this is the posterior pole (polus posterior). The latter is a geometric point and does not correspond to the exit point of the optic nerve, which lies ventrolateral to the posterior pole. The line connecting the anterior and posterior poles and passing through the center of the lens is the axis bulbi. In the mesaticephalic dog the axis forms an angle of Read more […]

Degenerative diseases

Intervertebral disc disease Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc protrusion or extrusion is one of the most common clinical neurological disorders. Protrusion describes a disc that is ‘bulging’ into the vertebral canal, whereas extrusion describes a situation where the central nuclear material of the disc has ruptured through the dorsal fibrous structures into the vertebral canal. Acute (type I) cervical disc herniations commonly cause pain, which may be manifested as a ‘nerve root signature’, without obvious neurological deficits; the severity of the pain may be such that surgery is required. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of disc disease are discussed in site. Cervical stenotic myelopathy (Wobbler syndrome) Also termed caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy, cervical spondylopathy, cervical spondylolisthesis, cervical malformation / malarticulation and disc-associated wobbler disease, this disorder most commonly affects Dobermann Pinschers and Great Danes, but many other breeds have been recognized with similar abnormalities. The age of onset of the disease is variable, ranging from 3 months to 9 years. Neck pain may be the only clinical sign of the disease; however, pelvic limb ataxia, Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Sporting Dogs

Brittany Patella luxation: Hip dysplasia Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Clumber Spaniels Hip dysplasia Cocker Spaniels (American) Hip dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Anury (no tail, no caudal vertebrae); Brachury (short tail) Curly-Coated Retrievers Thyroid disorders; Calcium metabolic disorders; Juvenile osteoporosis. English Cocker Spaniels Swimmers syndrome (i.e. the inability to stand at four to six weeks of age) English Setters Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias English Springer Spaniels Hip dysplasia; Myasthenia gravis Field Spaniels Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Flat-Coated Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Patella luxation; Neoplasias German Shorthaired Pointers Pannus; Neoplasias German Wirehaired Pointers Hip dysplasia; Toe fractures Golden Retrievers Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of elbow; Muscular dystrophy; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias Gordon Setters Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Irish Setters Generalized myopathy (i.e. stiff gait and other difficulties); Carpal (pastern luxation; Read more […]

Immunisation: Breeding and Lifeline

Canine Parovirus Immunization: Myths And Realities Time and again, questions have often been asked related to immunization of dogs. For example: Are vaccines safe? What are the risks where adverse reactions are known to occur, such as with MLV distemper and canine adenovirus vaccines? How soon do vaccines provide protection when a dog is exposed to virulent virus? How long does immunity last? Does a vaccine protect against actual infection and subsequent transmission of a pathogen, or only against disease? Should vaccines be expected to provide protection under all circumstances of breeding and management, or are other methods of disease control of equal or even greater importance? Distinguishing The Viruses: Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) is a term used to distinguish the highly pathogenic parvovirus from the “minute virus of canines” (CPV-I): CPV-2 is closely related to feline, mink and raccoon parvoviruses, but it is known to infect and cause disease only in members of the dog family. The principal mode of transmission is by fecal-oral spread. Virus is shed in the faeces of infected dogs for about one week, but not longer than two weeks. A carrier state has not been confirmed. CPV-2 is very stable to heat and most Read more […]