Tag Archives: English Cocker Spaniel

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

Aggressive Behavior

Characteristics of Dogs That Bite: Age and Sex The etiology of aggressive behavior presents considerable variation from dog to dog. Aggressive behavior is most frequently exhibited by socially mature and intact male dogs (), but young puppies can have serious precocious aggression problems, as well. Mugford (1984) reported that among 50 English cocker spaniels the mean average age of dogs with dominance-related aggression was 7.4 months (range, 3 to 24 months). In another group of golden retrievers treated by Mugford (1987), 24 with aggression problems averaged 2.9 years of age (range, 0.7 to 8.0 years). Of the 24 dogs treated by Mugford, 19 were males, two of which had been castrated. Beaver (1983) found that of 120 dogs with aggression problems (various diagnoses) the mean age was 3 years (range, 9 weeks to 11 years). She reported that 60.1% of the dogs were intact males (14% castrated), with 15.4% intact females (10.5% spayed). Wright (1985) found that the average age of dogs involved in severe attacks was 3 years (range, 0.67 to 10.5 years). All 16 dogs were males. These statistics suggest that considerable variation exists with respect to the time of onset associated with aggression problems. Although most dogs Read more […]

Aggressive Behavior: Role of Integrated Compliance and Obedience Training

Most treatment programs for aggression problems incorporate some element of obedience training () or nonconfrontational compliance training (). According to Tortora (1983), the benefits of obedience training depend on treated dogs learning that safety can always be obtained by engaging in cooperative behavior. Similarly, Clark and Boyer (1993) have argued that obedience training promotes a “feeling of security” as the result of establishing clear lines of communication and social boundaries by selectively and consistently applying incentives and appropriate deterrents to guide and shape dog behavior. The efficacy of obedience training as a therapeutic tool has been confirmed by Blackshaw (1991), who reported a high success rate involving dominance and territorial aggression by introducing proper restraint techniques and obedience training as her primary form of behavioral intervention. Even those individuals who appear to discount the preventative value of obedience training as & placebo, exerting “neither positive nor negative effects on the incidence of behavior problems” (), may nonetheless recommend such training because “obedience training provides tools for owners to use in modifying pet behavior” (). Finally, Read more […]

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), next to valvular endocardiosis, is the most commonly diagnosed cardiac disorder in dogs. In most cases the cause is not apparent; the most popular concept is that the aetiology for dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs is multifactorial. Cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in association with a deficiency of myocardial L-carnitine have been reported in one family of boxers suggesting that nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. L-Carnitine is necessary for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of cardiac muscle cells and a deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial energy production. More recently, it has been shown that some dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy have reduced plasma taurine levels. In humans, cardiomyopathy is associated with depression of the cellular Na+, K+-ATPase pump and a reduction (down regulation) of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors. Whether a similar situation exists in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy is not clear. A recent study reported no significant difference in the beta receptor density in four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy compared to normal dogs. Immune-mediated disease with the production of antibodies against altered Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Sporting Dogs

Brittany Patella luxation: Hip dysplasia Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Clumber Spaniels Hip dysplasia Cocker Spaniels (American) Hip dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Anury (no tail, no caudal vertebrae); Brachury (short tail) Curly-Coated Retrievers Thyroid disorders; Calcium metabolic disorders; Juvenile osteoporosis. English Cocker Spaniels Swimmers syndrome (i.e. the inability to stand at four to six weeks of age) English Setters Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias English Springer Spaniels Hip dysplasia; Myasthenia gravis Field Spaniels Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Flat-Coated Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Patella luxation; Neoplasias German Shorthaired Pointers Pannus; Neoplasias German Wirehaired Pointers Hip dysplasia; Toe fractures Golden Retrievers Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of elbow; Muscular dystrophy; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias Gordon Setters Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Irish Setters Generalized myopathy (i.e. stiff gait and other difficulties); Carpal (pastern luxation; Read more […]