Tag Archives: English bulldogs

The Urinary System

Urinary tract disorders of puppies and kittens may result from heritable (genetic) or acquired disease processes affecting differentiation and growth of the developing urinary tract or from similar processes that eventually affect the structure or function of the mature urinary system. Successful management of urinary tract disorders depends on familiarity with the structure and functions of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Developmental Physiology Although the embryonic kidneys produce urine, maintenance of fetal homeostasis is primarily the responsibility of the placenta. Varying quantities of urine formed by the fetal kidneys pass from the developing urinary bladder through the urachus to the placenta, where unwanted waste products are absorbed by the maternal circulation and subsequently excreted in the mother’s urine (). Fetal urine also passes through the urethra into the amniotic cavity, where urine forms a major constituent of amniotic fluid. The latter part of gestation is characterized by rapid increases in nephron number and size and by maturation of glomerular and renal tubular functions (). Prenatal development of glomerular filtration and renal blood flow appears to parallel increases Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Anomalies of the Ureters

Ureteral Agenesis Ureteral agenesis is the congenital absence of one or both ureters due to incomplete ureteral bud formation. Unilateral ureteral agenesis is the most common form observed in dogs and cats and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral renal aplasia (). Ureteral Duplication Ureteral duplication is a congenital disorder involving complete or partial duplication of one ureter. This disorder has been associated with a duplexed kidney and a supernumerary kidney in dogs; ureteral duplication has not been observed in cats (). Ureteral Valves Congenital ureteral valves are persistent transverse folds of vestigial mucosa and smooth muscle fibers forming annular, semiannular, or diaphragmatic lesions in the ureter (). Semiannular ureteral valves have been described in a 6-month-old female collie with unilateral ureterectasis, hydronephrosis, and urinary incontinence (). The etiopathogenesis of urinary incontinence associated with ureteral valves in this case is uncertain. Ectopic Ureters Ureteral ectopia is a congenital anomaly in which one or both ureters terminate abnormally in the urinary bladder. Intramural ectopic ureters contact and enter the bladder wall normally but continue submucosally through the Read more […]

The Eye

The Ophthalmic Examination History A complete ophthalmic history is an essential part of every puppy’s or kitten’s examination. Owners may be asked questions regarding the animal’s signalment, history of the presenting complaint(s), and any pertinent medical or ophthalmic diseases in the animal’s family histories. Other historical information that may be included is the animal’s vaccination status, diet, environment, and exposure to other animals. Previous therapy should be identified to prevent repetition of an unsuccessful regimen. Procedure Ophthalmic examination should be performed in a quiet area. Puppies usually require only gentle but firm restraint of the head. Very young puppies cooperate nicely when held in an assistant’s arms. Kittens can also be gently restrained and are less likely to demonstrate the constant ocular motion typical of puppies. Uncooperative puppies or kittens may be placed in a towel or restraint bag. Assessment of ocular abnormalities such as orbital swelling, squinting, or ocular discharge can be done in a well-lighted room, but actual ophthalmoscopic examination should be done with the lights dimmed. A bright source of focal illumination is required; the Finoff transilluminator on Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Bronchi

The bronchial tree (arbor bronchialis) () begins at the bifurcation of the trachea by the formation of a right and a left principal bronchus (bronchus principals [dexter et sinister]). Each principal bronchus divides into lobar bronchi  (bronchi lobares), formerly secondary bronchi, which is the basis for the identification of the lung lobes. These supply the various lobes of the lung and are named according to the lobe supplied. Within the lobe of the lung the lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi (bronchi segmentales), which are sometimes referred to as tertiary bronchi. The segmental bronchi and the lung tissue that they ventilate are known as bronchopulmonary segments (segmenta bronchopulmonalia). Ishaq (1980) studied 37 pairs of dog lungs and suggested a system for designating the bronchi. Schlesinger and McFadden (1981) discuss the morphometry of the proximal bronchial tree in six mammalian species. Adjacent bronchopulmonary segments normally communicate with each other in the dog. Various injection and reconstruction techniques have been employed to delineate these segments in the dog (). For bronchoscopic purposes Amis and McKiernan (1986) described a system of letters and numbers to identify lobar, segmental, Read more […]

The Bulldog

(The Illustrated Book of the Dog (1881) by Vero Shaw, B. A.) Allusion having been made to the great antiquity of the Bulldog in the chapter on the Mastiff, it will be unnecessary for us to recapitulate in the present instance what we said before concerning the claims of rival breeds to be regarded as the most ancient variety of British dog. Few, however, can be found who refuse to award the Bulldog the honor of being considered our national dog, for no variety of the canine species is so universally identified, both at home and abroad, with Great Britain, as the subject of the present article. Bulldog pluck and endurance are qualifications eagerly cherished by Englishmen of all classes; and it would be manifestly unjust to deprive this dog of the title which has been so universally awarded him. No breed of dog has provoked more discussion than the subject of this chapter, and in no canine controversy has party feeling run so high, and so many uncomplimentary epistles been exchanged. The result, however, of the angry battle of words has been so far a gain to the breed as to cause a perceptible increase in the number and quality of the exhibits at the principal shows, and, in the year 1875, it was the means of inducing Read more […]