Tag Archives: Dobermann Pinscher

Localized tremor syndromes

Limb tremors There are many different causes of limb tremors, and it should be remembered that focal seizures can cause involuntary movements of a single limb (). Some specific diseases are described below. Lumbar and sacral spinal disease Tremor can occur in one limb or body area. Tremor restricted to only the pelvic limbs may be seen in dogs with lumbar and sacral disease (). This type of tremor may result in part from muscle weakness secondary to spinal cord or peripheral nerve impingement, or possibly occurs as a reflection of pain. Pelvic limb tremor may result from compressive diseases such as lumbosacral vertebral canal stenosis, neoplasia and discospondylitis (). Senile tremor Older dogs can have tremors of the pelvic limbs (senile tremor); however, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this syndrome remains unknown (). Vascular diseases Limb tremors may also be seen with poor perfusion to the limbs resulting from cardiac, pulmonary or vascular disease, or anaemia. Localized cyanosis secondary to a right-to-left shunting patent ductus arteriosus can result in pelvic limb tremor, most commonly seen during or following exercise. Partial vascular thrombosis and occlusion of the femoral arteries may result in Read more […]

Peripheral vestibular diseases

Anomalous diseases Congenital vestibular disease Congenital vestibular diseases are seen infrequently in dogs and cats but have been reported in Siamese, Burmese and Tonkanese cats, and in Dobermann Pinschers, Cocker Spaniels, German Shepherd Dogs, Akitas, Smooth Fox Terriers and Beagles (). Clinical signs. The onset is usually first noticed between 3 and 12 weeks of age. Head tilt, ataxia and circling may be seen, and the animal may be deaf. Nystagmus is not a characteristic feature. Pafhogenesis. The pathogenesis is not known. One study of Dobermann Pinschers demonstrated noninflammatory cochlear degeneration in affected animals, with progressive loss of the auditory sensory hair cells (), whilst a separate study revealed the presence of lymphocytic labyrinthitis in affected Dobermann Pinscher puppies (). Diagnosis. Diagnosis is by exclusion of other disorders and consideration of signalment and history. Treatment and prognosis. No treatment is available. Vestibular signs may improve over time; this is most likely due to compensation for a static vestibular deficit rather than disease resolution. Deafness, if present, tends to be permanent. Affected animals should not be bred from as the condition is Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Degenerative diseases

Breed-specific spinal cord disease These are degenerative CNS diseases that are often inherited. They cause progressive signs and usually involve many areas of the CNS. The most common neurodegenerative disease specific to the spinal cord is degenerative myelopathy of German Shepherd Dogs and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (with sporadic reports in other breeds). As the predominant signs of this disease are paraparesis and ataxia, it will be discussed in site. However, some neurodegenerative diseases initially cause tetraparesis and ataxia. A list of such diseases can be found in Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Many of these diseases also affect other areas of the CNS and therefore cause other (e.g. cerebellar) signs. Breed Disease German Shepherd Dog, Pembroke Corgi, others Degenerative myelopathy Rottweiler Leucoencephalomyelopathy Dalmatian, Labrador Retriever Leucodystrophy Miniature Poodle Demyelination Afghan Hound, Kooiker Hound Myelopathy Labrador Retriever Axonopathy Fox Hound, Harrier Hound, Beagle Hound ataxia West Highland White Terrier, Cairn Terrier Globoid cell leucodystrophy Cervical stenotic Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Vascular diseases

Spinal haemorrhage Clinical signs: The clinical signs reflect the side of the haemorrhage and are acute in onset. They can be multifocal. Pathogenesis: Bleeding disorders can be inherited (e.g. von Willebrand’s disease) or acquired secondary to rodenticide toxicity or infectious / inflammatory diseases (e.g. immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation). Indeed, tick-borne infectious causes of vasculitis and thrombocytopenia, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, are common in some parts of the world. Haemorrhage into the CNS can occur with any bleeding disorder and, although unusual, it can be the first manifestation of the disease. For example, epidural haemorrhage causing spinal cord compression has been reported in Dobermann Pinschers with von Willebrand’s disease (). The presence of petechiae, ecchymoses or prolonged bleeding following venipuncture should alert the veterinarian to the possibility of a bleeding disorder. It is not unusual to find extensive extradural haemorrhage at the site of acute intervertebral disc herniations or vertebral fractures and luxations. These animals do not have an underlying coagulopathy; the haemorrhage has occurred as a direct result of disruption Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever;┬áSaint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or┬áSaint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), next to valvular endocardiosis, is the most commonly diagnosed cardiac disorder in dogs. In most cases the cause is not apparent; the most popular concept is that the aetiology for dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs is multifactorial. Cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in association with a deficiency of myocardial L-carnitine have been reported in one family of boxers suggesting that nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. L-Carnitine is necessary for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of cardiac muscle cells and a deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial energy production. More recently, it has been shown that some dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy have reduced plasma taurine levels. In humans, cardiomyopathy is associated with depression of the cellular Na+, K+-ATPase pump and a reduction (down regulation) of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors. Whether a similar situation exists in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy is not clear. A recent study reported no significant difference in the beta receptor density in four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy compared to normal dogs. Immune-mediated disease with the production of antibodies against altered Read more […]

Degenerative diseases

Intervertebral disc disease Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc protrusion or extrusion is one of the most common clinical neurological disorders. Protrusion describes a disc that is ‘bulging’ into the vertebral canal, whereas extrusion describes a situation where the central nuclear material of the disc has ruptured through the dorsal fibrous structures into the vertebral canal. Acute (type I) cervical disc herniations commonly cause pain, which may be manifested as a ‘nerve root signature’, without obvious neurological deficits; the severity of the pain may be such that surgery is required. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of disc disease are discussed in site. Cervical stenotic myelopathy (Wobbler syndrome) Also termed caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy, cervical spondylopathy, cervical spondylolisthesis, cervical malformation / malarticulation and disc-associated wobbler disease, this disorder most commonly affects Dobermann Pinschers and Great Danes, but many other breeds have been recognized with similar abnormalities. The age of onset of the disease is variable, ranging from 3 months to 9 years. Neck pain may be the only clinical sign of the disease; however, pelvic limb ataxia, Read more […]

Decreased vision with pupillary light reflex deficits

Concurrent impaired vision and pupillary light reflex deficits are suggestive of a lesion affecting the proximal portion of the visual pathway, from the retina to just prior to the lateral geniculate nucleus, which is common to both the visual pathways and the pupillary light reflex pathway. Retinal, optic disc and optic nerve lesions Unilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision in the affected eye and loss of the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex on stimulating the affected eye. Both the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex should still be present on stimulating the normal eye. Bilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision, mydriasis and loss of the pupillary light reflex (both the direct and consensual reflexes) in both eyes. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration: SARD is characterized by an acute loss of vision (although in some cases this may develop over a few days), and occurs occasionally in dogs in the UK (). Affected dogs are typically adult (middle-aged), can be of pedigree or mixed breed descent, and present bilaterally blind with dilated unresponsive pupils. In the acute stages no abnormalities are evident on ophthalmoscopic examination, but overtime (weeks Read more […]

Canine Kidney Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Canine kidney diseases can occur for a variety of reasons, including the presence of tumours in the body, heart failure, bladder stones, or shock following a severe accident. Dr Bush explains how the kidneys work, how they can be affected by disease, and discusses the treatments available to dogs. Understanding the nature of kidney diseases in the dog requires first of all a little knowledge of how the kidneys function. Normal kidneys perform a number of important tasks, espeially, 1) Removing from the body the waste products of metabolic processes (excretion), particularly those resulting from the breakdown of proteins such as urea. 2) regulating the amounts of “salts”, for example, electrolytes such as sodium and potassium, and water in the body. If there is an excess of any of these, the surplus is excreted; if in short supply, excretion is reduced as far as possible so that the substance is conserved. This excretion of substances is achieved by producing urine, the composition of which can be varied. In addition, although not germane to a general consideration of renal disease, the kidneys also control the degree of acidity or alkalinity within the body, secrete hormones affecting blood Read more […]