Tag Archives: Doberman Pinschers

Zinc Acetate, Zinc Sulfate

NUTRITIONAL; TRACE ELEMENT Highlights of Prescribing Information Metal nutritional agent that may be used for zinc deficiency, to reduce copper toxicity in susceptible dog breeds (Bedlington Terriers, West Highland White Terriers) with hepatic copper toxicosis, & treat hepatic fibrosis in dogs. Has astringent & antiseptic activity topically. Contraindications: None; consider obtaining zinc & copper levels before treating. Adverse Effects: Large doses may cause GI disturbances or hematologic abnormalities (usually hemolysis), particularly if a coexistent copper deficiency exists Zinc overdoses (e.g., U.S. Pennies) can be serious What Is Drug Used For? Zinc sulfate is used systemically as a nutritional supplement in a variety of species. Oral zinc acetate has been shown to reduce copper toxicity in susceptible dog breeds (Bedlington Terriers, West Highland White Terriers) with hepatic copper toxicosis. Zinc therapy may also be of benefit in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in the dog. Zinc sulfate is used topically as an astringent and as a weak antiseptic both for dermatologic and ophthalmic conditions. Pharmacology / Actions Zinc is a necessary nutritional supplement; it is required by Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in BedlingtonĀ terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

Paraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Dermoid sinus Clinical signs: Dermoid sinuses more often occur in the cervical region but can involve the thoracolumbar region (). Neurological examination is normal in the non-communicating form but neurological signs may occur if the sinus communicates with the dura or becomes infected (). Neurological signs reflect the neuroanatomical localization of the sinus. Close inspection of the hair on the midline may reveal abnormal placement. Pathogenesis: Dermoid sinus is an inherited neural tube defect in the Rhodesian Ridgeback () but has also been reported in other breeds (). The defect results from incomplete separation of the skin and neural tube during embryonic development (). The sinus often extends from the skin to the supraspinous ligament as a closed sac filled with keratin debris. Communication with the subarachnoid space can predispose to meningomyelitis. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on physical examination; radiography can be used to evaluate the extent of the sinus. Contrast radiography, using a non-ionic contrast medium (e.g. iohexol), determines whether the tract is closed and non-communicating or open and communicating with the spinal canal. Myelography determines the amount of spinal cord displacement. Read more […]


Minerals are present in small amounts in the tissues of all living things. Teeth, bones, muscles, and nerves have especially high mineral content. Although the AAFCO provides guidelines for the minimum amounts of minerals necessary for canine growth and development, each dog’s mineral requirements depend on the current nutritional state. For example, if a dog is iron deficient, he will need and absorb more iron from the intestinal tract. Working dogs and ill or stressed dogs may also have higher requirements. Minerals can be divided into two groups: major minerals and trace minerals. The major minerals are required in gram amounts each day, whereas the trace minerals are required in milligram or microgram amounts per day. Of the trace minerals, several are known to be required for canine health, and the roles of others are less understood. Your dog’s body needs to maintain a delicate balance between the various major and trace minerals. For several trace minerals, the line between the required amount and toxic levels is a thin one. So supplementing an already balanced dog food with minerals can create more problems than it solves. Table Sources of Minerals lists the different minerals your dog needs and which foods Read more […]

Muscular and Skeletal Diseases

Arthritis Disc Protrusion Hip Dysplasia Canine hip and Elbow Dysplasia Scottie Cramp Swimmer Tetany Fractures Wobbler’s Syndrome, Surgical Success Arthritis Joint degeneration may be a result of deterioration with age, physical damage or infectious disease. Where changes occur in the cartilage which forms the articular part of the joint they are usually degenerative rather than inflammatory. Inflammatory changes occur with generalized infections or when one or two joints only are affected by an injury. The more inflammation the more pain with movement. Infection and injury, although more painful, may often result in eventual healing. With degenerative changes there is usually less inflammation, but more limitation of movement. Antibiotics are extensively used in the treatment of joint infections so as to prevent changes which will permanently incapacitate the dog. joint damage usually needs radiographic examination for a proper diagnosis and evaluation of the extent of damage. The commonest joints to show pathological changes are the stifle and the hip in the hindleg, and the shoulder and carpus in the foreleg. Some hip problems can be resolved by completely excising the head of the femur where it sits in the hip Read more […]