Tag Archives: Dachshund

Dachshund

History and Development It is certain that by chance, mutation and finally by recognized breeding, the Dachshund, or Teckel as it is known in Germany, has been evolved from the oldest known breeds of dog. In old German documents there is mention of the “Tracking Dog ‘ and of the Bibarhunt or predecessor of the Teckel. In 16th century documents repeated reference is made lo “Little Burrow Dog”, “Badger Dog” and “Dacksel”, and woodcuts of 1576 to 1582 show cross-bred dogs on lengthy Dachshund bodies. Ai the end of the 17th century the “Badger Fighter” is described as a “peculiar low crooked legged specie”, while in 1848 Teckels became well known to hunting historians of that period and were described as follows: A good looking Dachshund is long and low, the back arched, belly drawn up weasel fashion, chest deep, neck long and strong, canine teeth interlocking closely, the eye expressive and spirited, the tail fine and not carried too gaily. The hind legs more still and straight than is usually the case in other dogs. Forelegs strong and muscular, not crooked but only with the broad strong feet turned outwards. Throughout the centuries our Dachshund was bred as a hunting dog. Definitely to the year 1848, the Smooth-haired Read more […]

Basset Hound

History and Development It is exceedingly difficult to pinpoint the exact period when the Basset evolved. Short-legged dogs which could be called “basset-type” were shown on wall paintings in Egyptian tombs around 2,000 B.C., and from that era until the Middle Ages various chroniclers have mentioned low-set, long-bodied dogs. However, one cannot be certain that these were Bassets. The first recorded mention of the word “Basset’ is found in Jacques du Fouilloux’s Venerie de Jacques du Fouilloux published in France in 1585. Therefore it this date is accepted as the beginning of the modern Basset, and if the earlier recordings of low-bodied dogs are dismissed as not relating to true Bassets, then the breed is undoubtedly of ancient origin. Not many breeds have four centuries of authenticated history behind them. Du Fouilloux writes of the breed being employed as badger dogs and of them going to earth in the style of terriers. He draws attention to two types of Basset, the rough-haired variety and the smooth-coated type, and states that they originated in Artois and Flanders. Modern canine historians do not disagree with this opinion and are unanimous in considering the northern French departments as the homeland of Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

Hyperadrenocorticism

Also called Cushing’s syndrome, this is principally a problem of the dog. It is extremely rare in the cat. Causes pituitary-dependent — 80% of dogs. Excessive ACTH secretion results in adrenocortical hyperplasia and excess secretion of cortisol. According to Peterson et al. (), most of these cases (80%) are due to microadenomas. Only a few dogs have large pituitary tumours and these are slow-growing and not usually malignant. Very occasionally, neurological signs will develop in these cases some pituitary-dependent cases not associated with tumours may be due to a failure of the negative feedback response by cortisol the remaining 15-20% of naturally occurring cases are caused by unilateral or bilateral adrenal tumours a further significant cause of hyperadrenocorticism is gluco-corticoid abuse (‘iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism’). The commonest cause of this is the excessive use of injectable repositol glucocorticoids. It is difficult to estimate the number of iatrogenic cases of hyperadrenocorticism occurring, but it is likely that they are of equal importance to naturally occurring cases Clinical features any breed, but particularly toy and miniature poodles, boxers, dachshunds and terrier breeds any Read more […]

Hypothyroidism

the commonest endocrine disorder of the dog the acquired naturally occurring condition has not been documented in the cat although the extremely rare congenital form has been described the metabolically active thyroid hormones are L-thyroxine (T4) and L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Aetiology Primary congenital agenesis (rare) non-functional thyroid tumour (rare) lymphocytic thyroiditis; the most important cause (approximately 90%), an autoimmune disorder which results in thyroid destruction idiopathic thyroid necrosis and atrophy may represent the end stage of lymphocytic thyroiditis Secondary Less common than primary1 causes (less than 5%) TSH deficiency leading to inadequate stimulation of the thyroid gland with subsequent reduction in the production of thyroid hormone congenital hypopituitarism (usually in association with GH deficiency) pituitary neoplasia (may present with other signs, e.g. diabetes insipidus) Tertiary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency results in deficiency of TSH and reduction in thyroid hormone production due to hypothalamic lesions — extremely rare other equally rare causes of hypothyroidism include: iodine deficiency defects in thyroid Read more […]

Gastric dilation and torsion

This condition preferentially affects the large deep-chested breeds of dog such as Bassett Hounds, German Shepherd dogs, St. Bernard, Irish Setters, Great Danes and Dobermans but Dachshunds may also be affected. There may be a predilection for young male dogs, but torsion has been observed in dogs from 2 to 10 years of age. The cause is not known but predisposing factors include; breed, use of dry cereal-based diets, overeating or drinking, stress, exercise and aerophagia (Table Predisposing causes for gastric torsion). Cereal-based diets fed as one large meal per day result in larger and heavier stomachs than those found in dogs fed tinned meat and biscuit. This predisposes the dog to gastric dilation and torsion (). It is also possible that disordered gastric motility may be involved. Torsions most often occur to the left or clockwise effectively sealing off the oesophagus and pylorus (). In our experience the mortality rate can exceed 68%. Table Predisposing causes for gastric torsion Breed Diet Overeating Stress, excitement Gastric stasis Aerophagia Motility disorder Lax gastric ligaments Normally the pylorus is held in position on the right of the abdomen by Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Cornea

Congenital Abnormalities Comeal Opacities. The cornea of the newborn puppy or kitten is a light blue color; or at least the cornea is less clear than that of the adult. In 2 to 4 weeks, corneal clearing is sufficient to permit ophthalmoscopic examination. It is not unusual to observe multifocal or diffuse faint white opacities in the corneas of young puppies and kittens. The opacities represent superficial foci of edema, and most are self-limiting. The cause of these opacities is unknown. Therapy is not necessary unless the opacities are accompanied by a mucopurulent discharge, in which case topical ophthalmic antimicrobial preparations may be applied. Animals born with their eyelids open often have diffuse corneal edema that clears in 14 to 18 days. Because reflex lacrimation is absent at birth, the exposed cornea is subject to desiccation and infection and can be avoided by frequent application of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial ointment every 3 or 4 hours until the animal is 10 to 12 days old. Cats with lysosomal storage diseases may develop corneal opacities related to the accumulation of polysaccharides within the endothelial cells and fibroblasts of the cornea. Fine granular deposits in the corneal stroma may Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

Type I intervertebral disc disease

Clinical signs: Onset of neurological signs may be peracute (<1 hour), acute (<24 hours) or gradual (>24 hours). Dogs presented with peracute or acute thoracolumbar disc extrusions may manifest clinical signs of spinal shock or Schiff-Sherrington postures. These indicate acute and severe spinal cord injury but do not determine prognosis. The degree of neurological dysfunction is variable and affects prognosis. Clinical signs vary from spinal hyperaesthesia only to paraplegia with orwithoutpain perception. Dogs with back pain only are usually reluctant to walk and may show kyphosis. Dogs with back pain alone and no neurological deficits often have myelographic evidence of substantial spinal cord compression. Neuroanatomical localization for thoracolumbar lesions is determined by intact (T3-L3) or hyporeflexive (L4-S3) spinal reflexes and by the site of paraspinal hyperaesthesia. Asymmetrical neurological deficits may be less reliable for determining the site of disc extrusion. Pathogenesis: Hansen (1951) first classified intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) as type I and type II. Hansen type I IVDD is herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the annular fibres and extrusion of nuclear material into the Read more […]