Tag Archives: Collies

Autoimmune Disorders

Pemphigus complex the pemphigus complex comprises a group of rare autoimmune diseases described in dogs and cats the diseases are vesiculobullous ulcerative disorders of the skin and often the mucous membranes autoantibody is directed against the epidermal intercellular cement substance and may be demonstrated by direct immunofluorescence testing histologically the pemphigus complex is characterized by acan-tholysis (loss of cohesion between individual epidermal cells) Pemphigus foliaceus the most common of the autoimmune diseases dogs and cats no age, breed or sex predisposition Clinical features often begins on the face, nose and ears as a vesiculobullous or exfoliative pustular dermatitis () footpads are frequently involved with hyperkeratosis mucocutaneous lesions are uncommon Diagnosis history physical examination histological examination: subcorneal acantholysis leading to the development of a cleft. Within the cleft there are neutrophils and eosinophils direct immunofluorescence may reveal intercellular deposition of immunoglobulin throughout the epidermis Differential diagnosis bacterial folliculitis dermatophyte infection seborrhoea systemic lupus erythematosus discoid Read more […]

Calan (Verapamil HCl): 40 mg, 80 mg & 120 mg Tablets

VERAPAMIL HCL (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan) CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKER Highlights of Prescribing Information Calcium channel blocking agent used for supraventricular tachycardias in dogs & cats Contraindications: Cardiogenic shock or severe CHF (unless secondary to a supraventricular tachycardia), hypotension, sick sinus syndrome, 2nd or 3rd degree AV block, digoxin intoxication, or hypersensitive to verapamil. IV is contraindicated within a few hours of IV beta-adrenergic blockers. Caution: Heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, & hepatic or renal impairment. Use very cautiously in patients with atrial fibrillation & Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Adverse Effects: Hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, exacerbation of CHF, peripheral edema, AV block, pulmonary edema, nausea, constipation, dizziness, headache, or fatigue Drug Interactions What Is Drug Used For? Veterinary experience with this agent is somewhat limited, but in dogs and cats verapamil may be useful for supraventricular tachycardias and, possibly, treatment of atrial flutter or fibrillation. Pharmacology / Actions A slow-channel calcium blocking agent, verapamil is classified as a class IV antiarrhythmic drug. Verapamil Read more […]

Velban (Vinblastine) for Injection

ANTINEOPLASTIC Highlights of Prescribing Information A Vinca alkaloid antineoplastic used for a variety of tumors in dogs (& sometimes cats) Contraindications: Preexisting leukopenia or granulocytopenia (unless a result of the disease being treated) or active bacterial infection; reduce dose if hepatic disease Adverse Effects: Gastroenterocolitis (nausea/vomiting), myelosuppression (more so than with vincristine); may also cause constipation, alopecia, stomatitis, ileus, inappropriate ADH secretion, jaw & muscle pain, & loss of deep tendon reflexes CATS can develop neurotoxicity causing constipation or paralytic ileus & aggravating anorexia; can also develop reversible axon swelling & paranodal demyelination Potentially teratogenic Avoid extravasation; wear gloves & protective clothing when preparing or administering Drug Interactions What Is Drug Used For? Vinblastine may be employed in the treatment of lymphomas, carcinomas, mastocytomas, and splenic tumors in small animals. It is more effective than vincristine in the treatment of canine mast cell tumors. Pharmacology / Actions Vinblastine apparently binds to microtubular proteins (tubulin) in the mitotic spindle, thereby Read more […]

Idiopathic Colitis

This lorm of colitis is now considered to be one of the commonest causes of chronic diarrhoea in the dog () and appears to be much less common in the cat. However, there is a report of six cases of lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis in cats (). It may be better described as a syndrome rather than a specific condition as there are many possible aetiological agents which may be responsible for the changes in the colon. Idiopathic colitis appears to affect any breed of dog and cat with no age or sex predisposition. However, cases appear to be more common in German Shepherd dogs. Rough Collies and Labradors. Unfortunately it is still unusual to determine the cause in the majority of cases of idiopathic colitis, hence the term, but occasionally a specific diagnosis is obtained. In this respect mycotic colitis has been recorded in cats due to Aspergillus spp.. The authors consider that dietary factors may be very important in the aetiology of colitis, because of the response noted to dietary management without drug therapy. Other aetiological agents include Trichuris vulpis infection, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. Idiopathic colitis may also develop as a sequel to gastroenteritis, secondary to small intestinal Read more […]

Gastric neoplasia

Gastric neoplasia is rare in dogs and cats compared with man. The types of tumour detected in small animals include polyps, adenomas, leiomyomas, adenocarcinomas and lymphosarcomas. The most frequent tumour in dogs is the adenocarcinoma and the most frequent site is the antrum or pylorus of the stomach. Lymphosarcoma is the commonest feline tumour although this is not frequently seen. Tumours frequently ulcerate so symptomatology may be similar to that observed with gastric ulceration, and endoscopically they appear very similar so histopathology of surgical biopsy is essential to differentiate which is present. Tumours have been observed more frequently in Rough Collies, Irish Setter and Terrier breeds, the mean age being 10 years and possibly more common in males than females (). Clinical diagnosis Classically there is a history of chronic vomiting, polydipsia and weight loss. The signs may appear over a short period of time or may develop more slowly over many months. The vomitus may be gastric juice and saliva or may contain food. There is no strong correlation between eating and vomiting but it certainly occurs in some individuals. Vomitus may also contain fresh or changed blood (coffee grounds) but this is not Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Disorders of the perineum and anus

Anatomy and physiology Perineum The perineum is made up of the structures which make up the boundary of the pelvic outlet. It extends externally from the dorsal aspect of the scrotum or vulva to the base of the tail; its lateral margins extend to the skin covering the tubers ischii and superficial gluteal muscles. The deep portion is delineated by the ischial arch ventrally, the third coccygeal vertebra dorsally and, in the dog, by the sacrotuberous ligament laterally. Due to the absence of a sacrotuberous ligament in the cat the lateral margins are less well defined. The perineum essentially surrounds the anal and urogenital canals. Within the perineum the most important structures are those which make up the pelvic diaphragm; namely levator ani and coccygeal muscles. These muscles act as a division between the pelvic canal and the wedge shaped ischiorectal fossa, which is bound laterally by the caudal portion of the superficial gluteal muscle, medially by the external anal sphincter levator ani and coccygeus muscles, and ventrally by the internal obturator muscle (). The muscles of the pelvic diaphragm are crucial in supporting the rectum and act not only as a physical partition but are essential in counteracting Read more […]

Major Issues in Dog Welfare

Dogs are kept in a wide variety of environments, including laboratories and kennel establishments housing large numbers of working dogs for much of their lives; short-term housing in rehoming centres; kennels within owners’ gardens; and within owners’ homes with access to roam freely between multiple rooms. Each environment presents its own challenges. Whilst it is often assumed that home-dwelling dogs experience near optimal conditions, and indeed Shore et al. found that people keeping dogs indoors, compared to in a yard, paid more attention to their social needs, it has also been asserted that modern companion animals experience ‘‘a relatively dull life’’, and it has been shown that owners lack the knowledge necessary to safeguard their dogs’ welfare (PDSA 2011). Recent legislation and social pressure in many cultures has led to dogs being kept predominantly indoors, an environment very different from that in which they were originally domesticated. Below we describe a number of current welfare challenges faced by pet dogs and discuss the extent to which each of the three approaches to welfare discussed above would describe them to be a problem. Since this volume is primarily concerned with cognition Read more […]

Drug therapy for diseases of the central nervous system

Drug therapy for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) involves the complicating factors of drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the therapeutic effect on the CNS, and the potential for adverse effects. Drug efficacy for central nervous system disorders depends on the extent of penetration across the blood-brain barrier after systemic administration. However, once a drug penetrates the blood-brain barrier it may cause an undesirable effect unrelated to the drug’s therapeutic effect. For example, antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs can produce adverse central nervous system effects that are not relevant to the drug’s therapeutic action. This chapter will not review all aspects of central nervous system drug therapy or toxicity but will focus on important issues of drug penetration, antimicrobial therapy, anti-inflammatory therapy, anticancer therapy and adverse drug reactions. Readers are referred to specific chapters on anticonvulsant therapy and treatment of traumatic central nervous system injury. Drug entry to the brain For a drug to elicit an effect on the CNS, either the drug or a metabolite of the drug must penetrate the BBB. An exception to this is drug-induced vomiting. The area of Read more […]