Tag Archives: Collie

Autoimmune Disorders

Pemphigus complex the pemphigus complex comprises a group of rare autoimmune diseases described in dogs and cats the diseases are vesiculobullous ulcerative disorders of the skin and often the mucous membranes autoantibody is directed against the epidermal intercellular cement substance and may be demonstrated by direct immunofluorescence testing histologically the pemphigus complex is characterized by acan-tholysis (loss of cohesion between individual epidermal cells) Pemphigus foliaceus the most common of the autoimmune diseases dogs and cats no age, breed or sex predisposition Clinical features often begins on the face, nose and ears as a vesiculobullous or exfoliative pustular dermatitis () footpads are frequently involved with hyperkeratosis mucocutaneous lesions are uncommon Diagnosis history physical examination histological examination: subcorneal acantholysis leading to the development of a cleft. Within the cleft there are neutrophils and eosinophils direct immunofluorescence may reveal intercellular deposition of immunoglobulin throughout the epidermis Differential diagnosis bacterial folliculitis dermatophyte infection seborrhoea systemic lupus erythematosus discoid Read more […]

Calan (Verapamil HCl): 40 mg, 80 mg & 120 mg Tablets

VERAPAMIL HCL (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan) CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKER Highlights of Prescribing Information Calcium channel blocking agent used for supraventricular tachycardias in dogs & cats Contraindications: Cardiogenic shock or severe CHF (unless secondary to a supraventricular tachycardia), hypotension, sick sinus syndrome, 2nd or 3rd degree AV block, digoxin intoxication, or hypersensitive to verapamil. IV is contraindicated within a few hours of IV beta-adrenergic blockers. Caution: Heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, & hepatic or renal impairment. Use very cautiously in patients with atrial fibrillation & Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Adverse Effects: Hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, exacerbation of CHF, peripheral edema, AV block, pulmonary edema, nausea, constipation, dizziness, headache, or fatigue Drug Interactions What Is Drug Used For? Veterinary experience with this agent is somewhat limited, but in dogs and cats verapamil may be useful for supraventricular tachycardias and, possibly, treatment of atrial flutter or fibrillation. Pharmacology / Actions A slow-channel calcium blocking agent, verapamil is classified as a class IV antiarrhythmic drug. Verapamil Read more […]

Velban (Vinblastine) for Injection

ANTINEOPLASTIC Highlights of Prescribing Information A Vinca alkaloid antineoplastic used for a variety of tumors in dogs (& sometimes cats) Contraindications: Preexisting leukopenia or granulocytopenia (unless a result of the disease being treated) or active bacterial infection; reduce dose if hepatic disease Adverse Effects: Gastroenterocolitis (nausea/vomiting), myelosuppression (more so than with vincristine); may also cause constipation, alopecia, stomatitis, ileus, inappropriate ADH secretion, jaw & muscle pain, & loss of deep tendon reflexes CATS can develop neurotoxicity causing constipation or paralytic ileus & aggravating anorexia; can also develop reversible axon swelling & paranodal demyelination Potentially teratogenic Avoid extravasation; wear gloves & protective clothing when preparing or administering Drug Interactions What Is Drug Used For? Vinblastine may be employed in the treatment of lymphomas, carcinomas, mastocytomas, and splenic tumors in small animals. It is more effective than vincristine in the treatment of canine mast cell tumors. Pharmacology / Actions Vinblastine apparently binds to microtubular proteins (tubulin) in the mitotic spindle, thereby Read more […]

Idiopathic Colitis

This lorm of colitis is now considered to be one of the commonest causes of chronic diarrhoea in the dog () and appears to be much less common in the cat. However, there is a report of six cases of lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis in cats (). It may be better described as a syndrome rather than a specific condition as there are many possible aetiological agents which may be responsible for the changes in the colon. Idiopathic colitis appears to affect any breed of dog and cat with no age or sex predisposition. However, cases appear to be more common in German Shepherd dogs. Rough Collies and Labradors. Unfortunately it is still unusual to determine the cause in the majority of cases of idiopathic colitis, hence the term, but occasionally a specific diagnosis is obtained. In this respect mycotic colitis has been recorded in cats due to Aspergillus spp.. The authors consider that dietary factors may be very important in the aetiology of colitis, because of the response noted to dietary management without drug therapy. Other aetiological agents include Trichuris vulpis infection, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. Idiopathic colitis may also develop as a sequel to gastroenteritis, secondary to small intestinal Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Anomalies of the Ureters

Ureteral Agenesis Ureteral agenesis is the congenital absence of one or both ureters due to incomplete ureteral bud formation. Unilateral ureteral agenesis is the most common form observed in dogs and cats and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral renal aplasia (). Ureteral Duplication Ureteral duplication is a congenital disorder involving complete or partial duplication of one ureter. This disorder has been associated with a duplexed kidney and a supernumerary kidney in dogs; ureteral duplication has not been observed in cats (). Ureteral Valves Congenital ureteral valves are persistent transverse folds of vestigial mucosa and smooth muscle fibers forming annular, semiannular, or diaphragmatic lesions in the ureter (). Semiannular ureteral valves have been described in a 6-month-old female collie with unilateral ureterectasis, hydronephrosis, and urinary incontinence (). The etiopathogenesis of urinary incontinence associated with ureteral valves in this case is uncertain. Ectopic Ureters Ureteral ectopia is a congenital anomaly in which one or both ureters terminate abnormally in the urinary bladder. Intramural ectopic ureters contact and enter the bladder wall normally but continue submucosally through the Read more […]

Congenital Deafness

Deafness that is present at or soon after birth may have either an acquired or a hereditary etiology and may occasionally occur in any puppy whether pure bred or mixed breed. Acquired deafness may be caused by viral infections, anoxia, or the ototoxic side effects of drugs or other materials. Because dogs and cats are born deaf, deafness in a puppy or kitten is not abnormal up to a certain age. In cats the earliest discriminating hearing tests were performed at the age of 7 days. Cochlear potential measurements from a round-window electrode were found to be conclusive about the presence or absence of hearing in cats over 7 days of age (). In dogs, hearing tests were performed from the age of 4 weeks () by means of cochlear potential measurements from round-window electrodes () or brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) (). Testing the Hearing of Young Puppies In our laboratory, two Irish wolfhound puppies and two beagle puppies were investigated for hearing from the third day after birth. Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAERs) were recorded from surface electrodes (Dantec) on the pinnae and the skin over the parietal bone on the midline. For the recording of air-conducted BAERs, each pup was placed in a Read more […]

Gastric neoplasia

Gastric neoplasia is rare in dogs and cats compared with man. The types of tumour detected in small animals include polyps, adenomas, leiomyomas, adenocarcinomas and lymphosarcomas. The most frequent tumour in dogs is the adenocarcinoma and the most frequent site is the antrum or pylorus of the stomach. Lymphosarcoma is the commonest feline tumour although this is not frequently seen. Tumours frequently ulcerate so symptomatology may be similar to that observed with gastric ulceration, and endoscopically they appear very similar so histopathology of surgical biopsy is essential to differentiate which is present. Tumours have been observed more frequently in Rough Collies, Irish Setter and Terrier breeds, the mean age being 10 years and possibly more common in males than females (). Clinical diagnosis Classically there is a history of chronic vomiting, polydipsia and weight loss. The signs may appear over a short period of time or may develop more slowly over many months. The vomitus may be gastric juice and saliva or may contain food. There is no strong correlation between eating and vomiting but it certainly occurs in some individuals. Vomitus may also contain fresh or changed blood (coffee grounds) but this is not Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in BedlingtonĀ terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Anterior Uvea

The irides of the puppy and kitten are often a different color than those of the adult. The blue-gray iris of puppies and kittens usually changes to the adult coloration within a few weeks. Iris color is ultimately related to the degree of stromal pigmentation and is influenced by coat color. Congenital Abnormalities Persistent Pupillary Membranes. Persistent pupillary membranes are strands of tissue that arise from the anterior iris surface and represent remnants of an embryonic vascular system. The persistent pupillary membranes may be confined to the iris surface or may extend from the iris to the cornea or lens (). Persistent pupillary membranes are inherited in the basenji. Iris Cysts. Iris cysts are floating, fluid-filled vesicles that arise from the posterior iris epithelium and are usually found in the anterior chamber. Iris cysts may be unilateral or bilateral and singular or multiple in number. Pupillary Abnormalities. A notch-like defect (coloboma) is occasionally seen in the ventronasal pupillary border of young dogs and cats, resulting in a keyhole-shaped pupil. An eccentric pupil (corectopia) may accompany multiple ocular defects, as occurs in the Australian shepherd. Eccentric pupils are usually Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]