Tag Archives: Chesapeake Bay Retriever

The Eyelids

Developmental Abnormalities Eyelid Agenesis. Eyelid agenesis is a congenital defect of the eyelid margin resulting in absence of varying segments of the eyelid margin, palpebral conjunctiva, and fornices. The agenesis may be unilateral or bilateral, affecting the kitten more often than the puppy. The lateral one third or two thirds of the upper eyelid margin is most frequently involved. Keratitis and ulceration result from direct contact of the cornea with facial hairs and from exposure secondary to imperfect eyelid closure. Small eyelid defects may be successfully managed with ophthalmic lubricant ointments applied three to four times a day to reduce ocular irritation or by performing an entropion procedure to evert the offending hairs. If one third of the eyelid or more is missing, a pedicle graft from the inferior temporal aspect of the lower eyelid can be transposed to the upper eyelid. Distichiasis. Distichiasis is an extra row of eyelashes (cilia) that protrudes from the orifices of the meibomian glands onto the eyelid margin. The upper, lower, or both eyelids may be involved (). Congenital distichiasis often occurs in the English bulldog, toy poodle, miniature poodle, American cocker spaniel, golden retriever, Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

Epistaxis

Basic Information Definition Bleeding from the nasal cavity Synonyms Hemorrhagic nasal discharge, nosebleed Epidemiology Species, Age, Sex. Dependent on underlying cause: Young purebred animals: coagulopathies Young to middle-aged animals: infectious diseases, trauma Middle-aged animals: acquired immune-mediated diseases Older animals: neoplasia Genetics, Breed Predisposition, and Risk Factors Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia: young to middle-aged, small to medium female dogs Rickettsial disease: dogs living or traveling to endemic areas Thrombasthenia: otter hounds Thrombopathia: basset hounds von Willebrand disease: Doberman pinscher, Airedale, German shepherd, Scottish terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, and many other breeds; cats: Himalayan Hemophilia A: German shepherd and many other breeds; cats Hemophilia B: Cairn terrier, coon-hounds, Saint Bernard, and other breeds; cats Nasal lesions: – Aspergillosis: German shepherd, dolichocephalic breeds – Neoplasia: dolichocephalic breeds Contagion & Zoonosis Fungal infections (transmission potential appears low). Clinical Presentation History, Chief Complaint: (Some or all may be present.) Nasal hemorrhage Sneezing Pawing Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Breed Action

In some breeds, admitting to the occurrence of an inherited defect is hazardous. Many breeders will openly condemn those who confess to having had a problem. It is as if breeders believe that silence will make the defect go away. This is clearly not the case, indeed, it is more likely that defects will spread. It is far more mature to admit to problems and collectively try to solve them. In the short term there may be heartache and economic loss for some, but in the long term the breed will benefit. It is crucial that breeders do not simply rely on pedigree data vvhen trying to evaluate problems. If a defect is recessive or suspected as being recessive, then the need is not only for five generation pedigrees of affected animals but also numbers of the litter born, their sexes status and, in the case of defects seen in later life, the age at examination. Given such data, a geneticist can help a breed examine the problem in depth. Given a list of “affected” pedigrees only on is in danger of “tracing the defect to a certain dog” without being aware that all pedigrees, affected and normal, trace to him. Any widely used stud might appear in “affected” pedigree without actually being the source of the problem though in some Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Sporting Dogs

Brittany Patella luxation: Hip dysplasia Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Clumber Spaniels Hip dysplasia Cocker Spaniels (American) Hip dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Anury (no tail, no caudal vertebrae); Brachury (short tail) Curly-Coated Retrievers Thyroid disorders; Calcium metabolic disorders; Juvenile osteoporosis. English Cocker Spaniels Swimmers syndrome (i.e. the inability to stand at four to six weeks of age) English Setters Hip dysplasia; Neoplasias English Springer Spaniels Hip dysplasia; Myasthenia gravis Field Spaniels Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Flat-Coated Retrievers Hip dysplasia; Patella luxation; Neoplasias German Shorthaired Pointers Pannus; Neoplasias German Wirehaired Pointers Hip dysplasia; Toe fractures Golden Retrievers Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of elbow; Muscular dystrophy; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias Gordon Setters Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Irish Setters Generalized myopathy (i.e. stiff gait and other difficulties); Carpal (pastern luxation; Read more […]