Tag Archives: Bull Terrier

The Lymphoid System

The Lymph Nodes In dogs, the primordial structure of the largest lymph nodes is present at 35 to 38 days of gestation, and lymphocytic colonization of the nodes is prominent at 52 to 53 days of gestation (). At birth, puppies and kittens have readily recognizable lymph nodes with a loose reticular structure, low lymphocyte density, and limited organization into cortex and medulla that rapidly proliferates into cortical nodules and medullary cords. Lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels vary in location and number, but their primary function is to participate in immunologic reactions by filtering lymph and recirculating the lymphocytes (). Antigens that gain access to particular body tissues are ultimately found in lymphatic vessels that drain these tissues, making it logical that elements of the immune system are strategically positioned along lymphatic vessels. Although lymph node architecture is relatively uniform throughout the body, nodes near portals of entry of external antigens (mandibular and mesenteric lymph node areas) are often more reactive than nodes in other locations. Lymph Node Disorders As a major site of immunologic recognition, lymph nodes are expected to respond to various local and systemic inflammatory, Read more […]

Dental Disease and Care

An oral examination should be performed each time a puppy or kitten is presented. Many pathologic or potentially pathologic conditions can be detected at an early age and corrective measures taken. Introducing the pet owner to the concept of oral home care and regular professional dental prophylaxis are the two most important responsibilities of the veterinarian with regard to dental disease care and prevention. Tooth Morphology There are three types of teeth in the deciduous dentition of puppies and kittens: incisor (I), canine (C), and premolar (P); a fourth type, molar (M), is found in the permanent dentition. Each type is designed to be self-cleaning in the non-crowded scissors occlusion, when the animal eats a natural diet, that is, catches its prey. Each tooth type serves a specific function. Incisor teeth are for grooming and nibbling, canine teeth are for grasping and tearing, premolars are for shearing, and molars are for grinding. The cat, a true carnivore, has no occlusal surface on the mandibular molar. The maxillary molar is small and vestigial in the cat (). Each tooth is covered with enamel, the hardest body substance. The bulk of the tooth is dentin, a living tissue that continues to be deposited Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

Congenital Deafness

Deafness that is present at or soon after birth may have either an acquired or a hereditary etiology and may occasionally occur in any puppy whether pure bred or mixed breed. Acquired deafness may be caused by viral infections, anoxia, or the ototoxic side effects of drugs or other materials. Because dogs and cats are born deaf, deafness in a puppy or kitten is not abnormal up to a certain age. In cats the earliest discriminating hearing tests were performed at the age of 7 days. Cochlear potential measurements from a round-window electrode were found to be conclusive about the presence or absence of hearing in cats over 7 days of age (). In dogs, hearing tests were performed from the age of 4 weeks () by means of cochlear potential measurements from round-window electrodes () or brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) (). Testing the Hearing of Young Puppies In our laboratory, two Irish wolfhound puppies and two beagle puppies were investigated for hearing from the third day after birth. Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAERs) were recorded from surface electrodes (Dantec) on the pinnae and the skin over the parietal bone on the midline. For the recording of air-conducted BAERs, each pup was placed in a Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

The Upper Airway: Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinus, Nasopharyngeal, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Diseases

Sneezing and nasal discharge are the most common clinical signs of nasal cavity disease. Owners of puppies or kittens that are quickly cleaned by their mother or that are fastidious about licking any appearing discharge may overlook a nasal discharge. Viral disease or environmental irritants usually cause a serous or mucoid discharge; bacterial disease causes a purulent or mucopurulent discharge. Sneezing is usually prominent in acute disease but wanes with chronicity. Acute viral diseases sometimes cause enough destruction of the nasal epithelium to obliterate the sneeze reflex, despite the presence of nasal discharge and other upper respiratory signs. Less common signs of nasal disease include stertorous breathing, pawing or rubbing at the nose or mouth, facial pain, facial deformity, ocular discharge, exophthalmos, or fetid breath. Because clinical signs related to the nose and sinuses can be manifestations of oral, pharyngeal, airway, and pulmonary disease, these areas should be carefully inspected. Evaluation of the nasal cavity should include oral and dental examination, radiographs of the nasal cavity, rhinoscopy, and visual examination of the nasopharynx and internal nares (). Pharyngeal and laryngeal disease Read more […]

Viral infections

Canine and feline viral enteritis are usually diagnosed in younger unvaccinated animals. The animal’s age, history, clinical signs and haematological findings are important in ranking a viral aetiology as a likely cause of the animal’s diarrhoea. Canine parvovirus Dogs are susceptible to infection by two types of parvovirus. Canine parvovirus-1 (CPV-1) is a relatively non-pathogenic virus that is occasionally associated with myocarditis, pneumonitis and gastroenteritis in very young puppies. Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) causes classic parvovirus enteritis 5-12 days after infection via the faecal-oral route. CPV-2b is a more recently recognized mutated form of CPV-2, which may be more pathogenic in some dogs. Dobermanns, Rottweilers, Pit Bull Terriers and Labrador Retrievers appear more susceptible than other breeds. The virus replicates in the intestinal crypts and causes severe villous blunting, diarrhoea, vomiting and subsequent bacterial translocation. Presenting complaints can vary from lethargy and anorexia, to vomiting with or without blood. Diarrhoea can” be absent In the early stages of infection and usually occurs 24-48 hours after onset of vomiting. The diarrhoea can often be profuse and haemorrhagic. Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

The Dalmatian

The Dalmatian or Coach-Dog. (The Illustrated Book of the Dog (1881) by Vero Shaw, B. A.) In spite of the meagreness, in point of numbers, of the entries in the Dalmatian classes at most shows, few breeds attract more attention, simply we believe on account of the peculiarity of the markings, which are indispensable to success on the bench. It is so seldom that a really well-marked dog is seen following a carriage, that those unacquainted with the few really good ones which appear at shows invariably express great surprise and admiration at the regularity and brilliancy of their colouring. Of the antecedents of the Dalmatian it is extremely hard to speak with certainty, but it appears that the breed has altered but little since it was first illustrated in Bewick’s book on natural history, for in it appears an engraving of a dog who would be able to hold his own in high-class competition in the present day, and whose markings are sufficiently well developed to satisfy the most exacting of judges. Indeed, the almost geometrical exactness with which the spots are represented by Bewick impresses us with the idea that imagination greatly assisted nature in producing what he thought ought to be; his ideal, however exaggerated, Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Selection for Particular Traits

There is some evidence that withers height and body weight are quite highly inherited and that they would tend to be related. We have data from GSD’s showing that sixty-day weight in the breed is about 45% heritable and thus vveights at other ages would be connected, while the genes which influence weight will also tend to influence height. In a breed seeking to increase height, progress should be reasonably rapid by the use of the taller animals in the breed. At the same time, body vveight would tend to be increased (whether one wanted this or not) and other related features would happen. Increased size vvould bring with it a more rapid growth rate and possibly increased risk of hip dysplasia. It would probably increase susceptibility of the long bones to diseases like panosteosis and it might lead to reduced hind angulation. There is also some evidence that increases in withers height are associated with greater litter size, at least up to a certain point. In breeds which are physically small, the associated low litter size has both economic and genetic drawbacks but there is minimal scope for increasing skeletal size beyond the odd centimetre or two. In general, most breeders are content to select to remain within Read more […]