Tag Archives: Boxers

Hyperadrenocorticism

Also called Cushing’s syndrome, this is principally a problem of the dog. It is extremely rare in the cat. Causes pituitary-dependent — 80% of dogs. Excessive ACTH secretion results in adrenocortical hyperplasia and excess secretion of cortisol. According to Peterson et al. (), most of these cases (80%) are due to microadenomas. Only a few dogs have large pituitary tumours and these are slow-growing and not usually malignant. Very occasionally, neurological signs will develop in these cases some pituitary-dependent cases not associated with tumours may be due to a failure of the negative feedback response by cortisol the remaining 15-20% of naturally occurring cases are caused by unilateral or bilateral adrenal tumours a further significant cause of hyperadrenocorticism is gluco-corticoid abuse (‘iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism’). The commonest cause of this is the excessive use of injectable repositol glucocorticoids. It is difficult to estimate the number of iatrogenic cases of hyperadrenocorticism occurring, but it is likely that they are of equal importance to naturally occurring cases Clinical features any breed, but particularly toy and miniature poodles, boxers, dachshunds and terrier breeds any Read more […]

Hypertrophic gastritis

This is a condition characterized by gross thickening of the gastric mucosa occurring as a diffuse or focal form involving the fundus, body or pylorus of the stomach (). It appears to be similar to a condition seen in man termed ‘Menetrier’s Disease’. The condition has been described in the cat () as well as the dog (). The focal form often involves the antrum and pylorus causing outflow obstruction or may appear like a polyp. In the diffuse form the majority of the mucosa is involved with macroscopic thickening of the mucosa and large rugal folds (3 and Plate 1). This is due histologically to glandular hyperplasia and cystic dilation of mucus glands with cellular infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Metaplastic changes lead to a loss of differentiation between the parietal and chief cells. Occasionally there is ulceration and hypertrophy of the muscle layer as well as the mucosa. The aetiology is not known but may include autoimmune disease, genetic predisposition in Boxers and Basenjis, hormonal influence especially through excessive levels of acetylchoiine, gastrin or histamine which have a trophic effect on the mucosa (). It may also occur where there is renal disease with failure to metabolize gastrin Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Diseases of the Colon

Acute colitis Acute large bowel diarrhoea is common and generally self-limiting. Potential causes include diet, bacteria and/ or their toxins, viral agents and parasites. Rarely is the underlying cause identified, necessitating non-specific symptomatic treatment. Reduced oral intake of a low fat, highly digestible diet, fed at frequent intervals is recommended. Either nutritionally balanced home-made rations or ready-made commercial Gl diets can be used. Hypoallergenic diets may be used successfully in some patients. Fibre supplementation is often prescribed for large bowel diarrhoea, since it affects large bowel function by normalizing motility, by binding colonic irritants, and by nourishing and protecting the colonic mucosa (e.g. via fermentation of soluble fibre into SCFAs). Acute colitis which is non-responsive to dietary management may require anti-diarrhoeal drugs (). These drugs (e.g. motility modifiers such as diphenoxylate or loperamide) are generally reserved for short-term use of 3-5 days duration. Antibiotics should not be routinely administered in cases of acute colitis of undetermined cause because of their adverse effects on normal intestinal flora and their tendency to promote resistant strains Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Secondary Myocardial Disease In The Dog

Infective myocarditis Viral Parvoviral myocarditis occasionally occurs in young dogs which are infected in utero or as neonates. Peracute disease may result in sudden death from heart failure in pups aged 3-8 weeks. Milder lesions may result in dilated cardiomyopathy and signs of congestive heart failure or arrythmias in older pups up to the age of 6 months. There is also experimental evidence to suggest that canine distemper virus can cause severe myocardial damage in very young pups. Bacterial Focal suppurative myocarditis may occur as a sequel to bacteraemia associated with bacterial endocarditis or pericarditis. Affected animals may show systemic signs (fever, weight loss and depression) and an arrhythmia is often evident on an ECG. Serial blood cultures should be performed in an animal showing appropriate clinical signs. Myocarditis has been reported in a dog which was seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi. ProtozoaI Infection of the myocardium with Toxoplasma gondii occasionally occurs in immunosuppressed animals. Neospora caninum infection has been reported as a cause of myocarditis and sudden death in a dog. Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas* disease) is associated with granulomatous myocarditis in young Read more […]

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), next to valvular endocardiosis, is the most commonly diagnosed cardiac disorder in dogs. In most cases the cause is not apparent; the most popular concept is that the aetiology for dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs is multifactorial. Cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in association with a deficiency of myocardial L-carnitine have been reported in one family of boxers suggesting that nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. L-Carnitine is necessary for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of cardiac muscle cells and a deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial energy production. More recently, it has been shown that some dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy have reduced plasma taurine levels. In humans, cardiomyopathy is associated with depression of the cellular Na+, K+-ATPase pump and a reduction (down regulation) of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors. Whether a similar situation exists in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy is not clear. A recent study reported no significant difference in the beta receptor density in four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy compared to normal dogs. Immune-mediated disease with the production of antibodies against altered Read more […]

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The incidence of primary (idiopathic) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is much lower in dogs than it is in cats. Males appear to be predominantly affected and there may be a higher incidence in boxers and German shepherd dogs. The disease is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum. The aetiology of primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been determined. Pathophysiology Myocardial hypertrophy results in decreased left ventricular compliance (increased myocardial *stiffness*) and diastolic dysfunction. Systolic function is usually adequate. Myocardial hypertrophy results in increased myocardial tension and afterload. This in turn leads to progressive myocardial isehaemia and the development of cardiac arrhythmias which are usually ventricular in origin. In most cases the hypertrophy is asymmetric with disproportionate thickening of the inter ventricular septum compared to the left ventricular free wall (at necropsy, septal to left ventricular free wall ratio in affected cases is greater than 1.1:1). Asymmetric hypertrophy may cause functional left ventricular outflow obstruction. Ventricular hypertrophy may also be associated with focal or diffuse endocardial Read more […]

Degenerative diseases

Intervertebral disc disease Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc protrusion or extrusion is one of the most common clinical neurological disorders. Protrusion describes a disc that is ‘bulging’ into the vertebral canal, whereas extrusion describes a situation where the central nuclear material of the disc has ruptured through the dorsal fibrous structures into the vertebral canal. Acute (type I) cervical disc herniations commonly cause pain, which may be manifested as a ‘nerve root signature’, without obvious neurological deficits; the severity of the pain may be such that surgery is required. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of disc disease are discussed in site. Cervical stenotic myelopathy (Wobbler syndrome) Also termed caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy, cervical spondylopathy, cervical spondylolisthesis, cervical malformation / malarticulation and disc-associated wobbler disease, this disorder most commonly affects Dobermann Pinschers and Great Danes, but many other breeds have been recognized with similar abnormalities. The age of onset of the disease is variable, ranging from 3 months to 9 years. Neck pain may be the only clinical sign of the disease; however, pelvic limb ataxia, Read more […]

Inflammatory diseases

Infectious meningitis / meningomyelitis Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and meningomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and the meninges) can cause severe spinal pain. Meningomyelitis, by definition, will also cause neurological deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most reliable antemortem diagnostic test available for identifying CNS inflammation; it often reveals an increase in the white blood cell number as well as protein elevations. A complete discussion of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of infectious CNS disease is presented in site. Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis Clinical signs: SRMA, also termed necrotizing vasculitis, juvenile polyarteritis syndrome, corticosteroid-responsive meningitis / meningomyelitis, aseptic suppurative meningitis, panarteritis and pain syndrome, is a non-infectious inflammatory condition reported in Beagles, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Boxers and German Short-Haired Pointers (), and urobably occurs in other breeds. Affected dogs are often young adults (8-18 months : d) but may be of any age, and are usually febrile and hyperaesthetic, with cervical rigidity and anorexia (). Neurological deficits can be seen in the chronic form of this disease. Read more […]