Tag Archives: Boxer

Diarrhoea in Dogs

Diarrhoea in dogs have been mentioned in 1824 Looseness, or Purging (Diarrhoea). Dogs are very subject, under various circumstances, to diarrhoea. It is seldom that they are affected with the Distemper without having a morbid alvine flux also, and which, when obstinate and violent, is one of the most fatal accompaniments the disease can have. In the distemper, the colour and consistence of the loose stools vary much; sometimes the motions are glairy or mucus-like, often frothy and pale; at others totally black: but, when the purging has lasted some time, they invariably become yellow. Another common cause of purging among dogs arises from worms; in which cases, the stools are less liquid, but more glairy and frothy: the state of the bowels varies also from day to day, being at one time loose, and at another costive. When diarrhoea continues for many days, the rectum becomes inflamed and slightly ulcerated within the fundament, by which a constant irritation and tenesmus are kept up; and the poor animal, feeling as though he wanted to evacuate, is continually trying to bring something away. On observing this, persons are frequently led into error; for, under a supposition that there exists actual costiveness at Read more […]

Hypersensitivity Skin Disorders

Clinical hypersensitivity disorders have been classified by Gel and Coombes. The following description is simplified since in many instances complex interactions occur simultaneously. Type 1 (immediate, anaphylactic) genetically susceptible individuals inhale (absorb percutaneously?) allergens such as pollen and house dust, and produce immunoglobulin E (IgE), which fixes to tissue mast cells and blood basophils the allergen subsequently comes into contact with its specific IgE, leading to the release of vasoactive amines, which cause tissue damage examples are urticaria, angio-oedema, atopy, drug eruption and flea-bite hypersensitivity Type 2 (cytotoxic) IgG or IgM with or without complement binds to complete antigens on body tissues the antigen—antibody reaction causes cell lysis examples are pemphigus, pemphigoid, cold agglutinin disease and dnig eruption Type 3 (immune complex) circulating antigen-antibody complexes fix complement and are deposited in blood vessel walls these complexes attract neutrophils; proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released from the neutrophils produce tissue damage examples are systemic lupus erythematosus and bacterial hypersensitivity Type 4 (delayed) incomplete Read more […]


Also called Cushing’s syndrome, this is principally a problem of the dog. It is extremely rare in the cat. Causes pituitary-dependent — 80% of dogs. Excessive ACTH secretion results in adrenocortical hyperplasia and excess secretion of cortisol. According to Peterson et al. (), most of these cases (80%) are due to microadenomas. Only a few dogs have large pituitary tumours and these are slow-growing and not usually malignant. Very occasionally, neurological signs will develop in these cases some pituitary-dependent cases not associated with tumours may be due to a failure of the negative feedback response by cortisol the remaining 15-20% of naturally occurring cases are caused by unilateral or bilateral adrenal tumours a further significant cause of hyperadrenocorticism is gluco-corticoid abuse (‘iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism’). The commonest cause of this is the excessive use of injectable repositol glucocorticoids. It is difficult to estimate the number of iatrogenic cases of hyperadrenocorticism occurring, but it is likely that they are of equal importance to naturally occurring cases Clinical features any breed, but particularly toy and miniature poodles, boxers, dachshunds and terrier breeds any Read more […]


the commonest endocrine disorder of the dog the acquired naturally occurring condition has not been documented in the cat although the extremely rare congenital form has been described the metabolically active thyroid hormones are L-thyroxine (T4) and L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Aetiology Primary congenital agenesis (rare) non-functional thyroid tumour (rare) lymphocytic thyroiditis; the most important cause (approximately 90%), an autoimmune disorder which results in thyroid destruction idiopathic thyroid necrosis and atrophy may represent the end stage of lymphocytic thyroiditis Secondary Less common than primary1 causes (less than 5%) TSH deficiency leading to inadequate stimulation of the thyroid gland with subsequent reduction in the production of thyroid hormone congenital hypopituitarism (usually in association with GH deficiency) pituitary neoplasia (may present with other signs, e.g. diabetes insipidus) Tertiary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency results in deficiency of TSH and reduction in thyroid hormone production due to hypothalamic lesions — extremely rare other equally rare causes of hypothyroidism include: iodine deficiency defects in thyroid Read more […]

Hypertrophic gastritis

This is a condition characterized by gross thickening of the gastric mucosa occurring as a diffuse or focal form involving the fundus, body or pylorus of the stomach (). It appears to be similar to a condition seen in man termed ‘Menetrier’s Disease’. The condition has been described in the cat () as well as the dog (). The focal form often involves the antrum and pylorus causing outflow obstruction or may appear like a polyp. In the diffuse form the majority of the mucosa is involved with macroscopic thickening of the mucosa and large rugal folds (3 and Plate 1). This is due histologically to glandular hyperplasia and cystic dilation of mucus glands with cellular infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Metaplastic changes lead to a loss of differentiation between the parietal and chief cells. Occasionally there is ulceration and hypertrophy of the muscle layer as well as the mucosa. The aetiology is not known but may include autoimmune disease, genetic predisposition in Boxers and Basenjis, hormonal influence especially through excessive levels of acetylchoiine, gastrin or histamine which have a trophic effect on the mucosa (). It may also occur where there is renal disease with failure to metabolize gastrin Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Diseases of the Colon

Acute colitis Acute large bowel diarrhoea is common and generally self-limiting. Potential causes include diet, bacteria and/ or their toxins, viral agents and parasites. Rarely is the underlying cause identified, necessitating non-specific symptomatic treatment. Reduced oral intake of a low fat, highly digestible diet, fed at frequent intervals is recommended. Either nutritionally balanced home-made rations or ready-made commercial Gl diets can be used. Hypoallergenic diets may be used successfully in some patients. Fibre supplementation is often prescribed for large bowel diarrhoea, since it affects large bowel function by normalizing motility, by binding colonic irritants, and by nourishing and protecting the colonic mucosa (e.g. via fermentation of soluble fibre into SCFAs). Acute colitis which is non-responsive to dietary management may require anti-diarrhoeal drugs (). These drugs (e.g. motility modifiers such as diphenoxylate or loperamide) are generally reserved for short-term use of 3-5 days duration. Antibiotics should not be routinely administered in cases of acute colitis of undetermined cause because of their adverse effects on normal intestinal flora and their tendency to promote resistant strains Read more […]

Disorders of the Uterus

Frequently Asked Questions 1) Did my bitch get pyometra from the male that bred her? No. Pyometra is a two-step process with an initial change in the lining of the uterus (cystic endometrial hyperplasia) becoming infected with bacteria that are part of the normal flora of the bitch’s vagina. These bacteria get a chance to ascend into the uterus while the bitch is in heat, colonize the abnormal uterine lining, and multiply within the uterus. In virtually all reports identifying the source of bacteria involved in canine pyometra, it has arisen from the bitch’s normal bacterial population. 2) How can you tell the difference between a pregnant bitch with morning sickness and a bitch with pyometra? This is a good question because pregnancy and pyometra happen at the same time in the cycle. Pregnant dogs sometimes become inappetent at about the third week of gestation but they should not have a fever and should not have vulvar discharge. Bitches with pyometra generally either have creamy, foul-smelling vulvar discharge (open-cervix pyometra) or have fever, lethargy, abdominal distension, and occasionally vomiting and increased thirst and urination. If you’re unsure and if the bitch is at least 24 days from Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

The External Ear

The external ear of mammals consists of the auricle and external acoustic meatus. It varies greatly in size and shape between species and within domestic breeds. The external ear evolved as a sound-gathering structure, although its morphologic features in some breeds of domestic dogs appear to impede rather than enhance its function. The ears, when erect, can be directed independently to localize and collect sound. Sound is conducted via the external acoustic meatus to the tympanic membrane deep in the external acoustic meatus. External Acoustic Meatus The external acoustic meatus (meatus acousticus externus) is the canal from the base of the auricle to the tympanic membrane surrounded by annular cartilage and the tubular portion of the auricular cartilage. The latter is the rolled up proximal part of the auricular cartilage. Auricle The auricle (auricula), pinna, is the externally visible part of the ear. The size and shape of the nontubular part of the auricular cartilage (cartilago auriculae) determines the appearance of the auricle, which may be upright or pendulous. In some breeds, such as the Boxer, it is often surgically trimmed The auricle is covered by skin and is moved by muscles. The auricular cartilage Read more […]