Tag Archives: Boston Terrier

Hypersensitivity Skin Disorders

Clinical hypersensitivity disorders have been classified by Gel and Coombes. The following description is simplified since in many instances complex interactions occur simultaneously. Type 1 (immediate, anaphylactic) genetically susceptible individuals inhale (absorb percutaneously?) allergens such as pollen and house dust, and produce immunoglobulin E (IgE), which fixes to tissue mast cells and blood basophils the allergen subsequently comes into contact with its specific IgE, leading to the release of vasoactive amines, which cause tissue damage examples are urticaria, angio-oedema, atopy, drug eruption and flea-bite hypersensitivity Type 2 (cytotoxic) IgG or IgM with or without complement binds to complete antigens on body tissues the antigen—antibody reaction causes cell lysis examples are pemphigus, pemphigoid, cold agglutinin disease and dnig eruption Type 3 (immune complex) circulating antigen-antibody complexes fix complement and are deposited in blood vessel walls these complexes attract neutrophils; proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released from the neutrophils produce tissue damage examples are systemic lupus erythematosus and bacterial hypersensitivity Type 4 (delayed) incomplete Read more […]

The Urinary System

Urinary tract disorders of puppies and kittens may result from heritable (genetic) or acquired disease processes affecting differentiation and growth of the developing urinary tract or from similar processes that eventually affect the structure or function of the mature urinary system. Successful management of urinary tract disorders depends on familiarity with the structure and functions of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Developmental Physiology Although the embryonic kidneys produce urine, maintenance of fetal homeostasis is primarily the responsibility of the placenta. Varying quantities of urine formed by the fetal kidneys pass from the developing urinary bladder through the urachus to the placenta, where unwanted waste products are absorbed by the maternal circulation and subsequently excreted in the mother’s urine (). Fetal urine also passes through the urethra into the amniotic cavity, where urine forms a major constituent of amniotic fluid. The latter part of gestation is characterized by rapid increases in nephron number and size and by maturation of glomerular and renal tubular functions (). Prenatal development of glomerular filtration and renal blood flow appears to parallel increases Read more […]

The Eye

The Ophthalmic Examination History A complete ophthalmic history is an essential part of every puppy’s or kitten’s examination. Owners may be asked questions regarding the animal’s signalment, history of the presenting complaint(s), and any pertinent medical or ophthalmic diseases in the animal’s family histories. Other historical information that may be included is the animal’s vaccination status, diet, environment, and exposure to other animals. Previous therapy should be identified to prevent repetition of an unsuccessful regimen. Procedure Ophthalmic examination should be performed in a quiet area. Puppies usually require only gentle but firm restraint of the head. Very young puppies cooperate nicely when held in an assistant’s arms. Kittens can also be gently restrained and are less likely to demonstrate the constant ocular motion typical of puppies. Uncooperative puppies or kittens may be placed in a towel or restraint bag. Assessment of ocular abnormalities such as orbital swelling, squinting, or ocular discharge can be done in a well-lighted room, but actual ophthalmoscopic examination should be done with the lights dimmed. A bright source of focal illumination is required; the Finoff transilluminator on Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

The Upper Airway: Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinus, Nasopharyngeal, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Diseases

Sneezing and nasal discharge are the most common clinical signs of nasal cavity disease. Owners of puppies or kittens that are quickly cleaned by their mother or that are fastidious about licking any appearing discharge may overlook a nasal discharge. Viral disease or environmental irritants usually cause a serous or mucoid discharge; bacterial disease causes a purulent or mucopurulent discharge. Sneezing is usually prominent in acute disease but wanes with chronicity. Acute viral diseases sometimes cause enough destruction of the nasal epithelium to obliterate the sneeze reflex, despite the presence of nasal discharge and other upper respiratory signs. Less common signs of nasal disease include stertorous breathing, pawing or rubbing at the nose or mouth, facial pain, facial deformity, ocular discharge, exophthalmos, or fetid breath. Because clinical signs related to the nose and sinuses can be manifestations of oral, pharyngeal, airway, and pulmonary disease, these areas should be carefully inspected. Evaluation of the nasal cavity should include oral and dental examination, radiographs of the nasal cavity, rhinoscopy, and visual examination of the nasopharynx and internal nares (). Pharyngeal and laryngeal disease Read more […]

Disorders of the Penis and Prepuce

1) My intact male dog always has a glob of green “goo” hanging by his prepuce. Is that abnormal? All intact male dogs make prostatic fluid all the time, whether they are being used for breeding or not. Most of the prostatic fluid runs into the bladder, but some runs through the penis and accumulates at the tip of the prepuce; this is normal. If the dog licks excessively, the surface of the penis is red or rough, or there is such a large amount of discharge that it drips, that is abnormal and the dog should be seen by a vet. Persistent penile frenulum Development The penis and prepuce are joined during embryonic development by a tissue called the balanopreputial fold. This fold should dissolve, under the influence of testosterone, before birth. In some dogs, persistence of a portion of this fold leads to a permanent connection between the ventral portion of the penis and the prepuce, such that the penis cannot be completely extruded. The penile frenulum also may be associated with the penis only, usually causing ventral deviation of the tip of the penis as the frenulum attaches the tip to the shaft (). Signalment There is no breed predisposition described for this uncommon condition. It is a congenital condition Read more […]

Phimosis, paraphimosis, and priapism

Development Phimosis is the inability of the penis to be extruded from the prepuce (). Paraphimosis is the inability of the nonerect, extruded penis to be withdrawn into the prepuce. Priapism is persistent erection and an inability of the erect, extruded penis to be withdrawn into the prepuce. Phimosis can occur whenever there is narrowing of the external portion of the prepuce. It is uncommon and usually occurs as a congenital defect in puppies. Paraphimosis may occur because of a congenital defect in which the muscles allowing the penis to be drawn into the prepuce are dysfunctional or the external orifice of the prepuce is too small, but more often it occurs in older dogs that have historically been able to replace their penis within the prepuce. It may occur secondary to inflammation or injury of the penis. Most often, paraphimosis in older dogs has no identifiable cause. Priapism occurs with obstruction of normal outflow of blood from the engorged penis. This may occur secondary to neoplasia, thromboembolism (blood clot), neurologic defect, or unfortunate placement of sutures during castration. Signalment Phimosis is usually a congenital defect. The Boston terrier breed may be predisposed. Paraphimosis most Read more […]

Paraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Dermoid sinus Clinical signs: Dermoid sinuses more often occur in the cervical region but can involve the thoracolumbar region (). Neurological examination is normal in the non-communicating form but neurological signs may occur if the sinus communicates with the dura or becomes infected (). Neurological signs reflect the neuroanatomical localization of the sinus. Close inspection of the hair on the midline may reveal abnormal placement. Pathogenesis: Dermoid sinus is an inherited neural tube defect in the Rhodesian Ridgeback () but has also been reported in other breeds (). The defect results from incomplete separation of the skin and neural tube during embryonic development (). The sinus often extends from the skin to the supraspinous ligament as a closed sac filled with keratin debris. Communication with the subarachnoid space can predispose to meningomyelitis. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on physical examination; radiography can be used to evaluate the extent of the sinus. Contrast radiography, using a non-ionic contrast medium (e.g. iohexol), determines whether the tract is closed and non-communicating or open and communicating with the spinal canal. Myelography determines the amount of spinal cord displacement. Read more […]