Tag Archives: Borzoi

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Hounds

Afghan Hounds Elbow dysplasia; Malformation of articular surfaces of proximal radius and ulna; Thyroid disorders American Foxhounds Spinal osteochondrois (affects the ability to run) Basenjis Hip dysplasia Basset Hounds Vertebral deformity with pressure necrosis results from anomaly of third cervical vertebra; Achondroplasia (foreleg lameness caused by anatomical irregularity; cartilage of growth plate grows in irregular directions and is scant); OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) (shoulder); Osteodystrophy; Radial carpal joint irregularity; Patella luxation, medial or lateral that produces lameness at four to six months of age; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Panostetis Beagles Hip dysplasia; Epiphyseal dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease) Black and Tan Coonhounds Hip dysplasia (high incidence); Polyradiculoneuritis; Coondog paralysis Bloodhounds Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Borzois Thyroid disorders Dachshunds IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Osteoporosis clinically similar to swimmers, with radiographs showing dense bones and abnormal bone resorption; UAP (ununited anconeal process); Patella luxation; Achondroplasia; Thyroid disorder English Foxhounds Osteochondrosis Read more […]

Balanced Angulation

The term “balanced angulation” in general refers to the various angles of the legs, though it could include the neck angle, the angles of the head, angle of tail set, etc. According to Spira’s book “Canine Terminology”, balance is a synonym for symmetry. When something is symmetrical, it does not mean identical. The right and left hands are symmetrical, but, as everyone knows, the left glove will not fit the right hand. Thus, balanced angulation of the legs means that the angles of the front legs should be approximately symmetrical to the equivalent angles of the rear leg. While we can say that the rear leg angles should approximate the front leg angles, specifically, which angles are we referring to? Although I have never seen a written definition of which leg joints have equivalent angulation, it is logical to assume that the point of shoulder angle should nearly equal the angle at the stifle joint and that the angle at the elbow should nearly equal the angle at the hock joint. By present findings those dogs designed for ideal trotting should have the shoulder blade layback about 300 off the VERTICAL (not 450 degrees as commonly quoted); whereas the pelvis should be about 300 off the HORIZONTAL. Thus, these two angles Read more […]


The Changing Role of Ring Stewards As Shows Become Bigger And More Complex, There is An Increasing Need For Training And Experience Among Ring Stewards. The History of Ring Stewarding: It would be wonderful to write about the noble and ancient position of the ring steward. Unfortunately, no Ring Steward’s Hall of Fame exists, nor is there a “History of Ring Stewards Around the World.” Suffice it to say that ring stewards have probably been around for as long as there have been dog shows, but it seems the details of the job have changed over the years. A bit of research suggests the modern ring steward should be grateful. Fifty years ago it was the practice for ring stewards to travel from the ring to the benching area to locate the dogs to be judged in the next class, along with corralling the handlers, who may have been somewhere else. Additionally, it was the steward’s job to attach the armband to each exhibitor as they entered the ring, then remove all armbands after the class was judged and retain the winners’ armbands for Winner’s judging. Believe it or not, there may actually be a way to trace the origin of the practice of “grab some friends and make them ring stewards for the day.” An article appearing in the Read more […]

Handling a show – Dog

For success in the ring, a dog should appear confident and familiar with the handling, stance and movements required of it. Your dog’s “presence” is a crucial feature in show judging – almost as important as anatomical excellence. This “presence” has a lot to do with good handling. If you’re not sufficiently confident yourself, it is in fact possible to employ an experienced handler to take your dog through its paces in the ring. A show-dog is accompanied in the ring at all times by its handler, and proper presentation begins with the handler. Dogs pick up human moods and fears rapidly; a gloomy owner will soon transmit his feelings to his dog and their combined performance will be drab and lack-lustre. One of the elements of successful dog handling is dressing neatly and practically. If you own a large dog, remember when choosing footwear that you’ll have to run in the ring. Gaiting One of the most important aspects of your dog’s performance is the way it moves. The judges will expect to see each dog moving at a brisk trot. It is the responsibility of the handler to give the dog enough space and freedom to move correctly, and to move freely himself without impeding the animal. It is also up to the handler to selecting Read more […]

Canine Terminology – G

GAIT Manner in which a dog moves, as walking, trotting, pacing or galloping. GALLOP A fast, running gait; canter, normal gallop or the double suspension gallop. GUARD HAIRS The longer hairs on double-coated dogs; stiffer hairs that protect the undercoat. GAY TAIL A tail carried higher than desirable for the breed; usually the tail is held over the back. GAZEHOUND Hounds that hunt game by sight, such as Greyhounds, Whippets, Saluki, Borzoi or Afghan Hounds. GOOSE-RUMP Croup (pelvis) sloping too steeply toward the rear; low tail set. GROUP Dog breeds are divided into six groups to facilitate judging. Read more […]

Anatomy Of The Dog: What is a Breed

A few months ago, the United Kennel Club added nine breeds, to its registry, bringing its total to 160. Last month, the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Eskimo to its miscellaneous group, the first step towards official recognition as an AKC breed. The new UKC breeds are Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen, Canaan Dog, English Toy Spaniel, Finnish Spitz, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Manchester Terrier, Polish Owczarek Nizinny, Tibetan Spaniel and Shiba, all but the Nizziny are recognized by the AKC, some of them for many years, and AKC’s newest, the American Eskimo, has been a UKC breed for a long time. Both registries seem to be in race to add new breeds to their lists, a race that some critics say is an effort to increase the treasuries of both organizations. This rush, along with the apparent whimsical assignment of breed status in some cases, an increase in breed-specific laws in the last few years, and the call by animal rights advocates for a ban on breeding pure bred dogs, has caused some to wonder about the definition of breed. So what is a breed? Webster’s Desk Dictionary of the English Language defines a breed as “a homogeneous grouping Read more […]

The Skeletal System: How Dog Moves And Jumps

How the dog moves The apparatus of the dog’s locomotion consists of bones, joints, muscles and nerves. The nervous system initiates and co-ordinates muscular activity. It sends messages to the muscles, which work to move the limb bones. The action of the dog’s limbs can be linked to the spokes of a wheel, each in turn exerting pressure against the ground, then being rotated until able to repeat the process. The larger a wheel, the more ground it covers in one revolution and the longer a dog’s limbs, the greater its stride. The further forward its centre of gravity, the faster a dog can move, because its hind legs aren’t supporting too much weight and are more readily available for propulsion. This is true of breeds noted for their speed and agility such as Greyhounds and Borzois. With gundogs, breeders usually try to achieve a happy medium in the centre of gravity because of the need for them to carry heavy game in their mouth. Most of the forward drive comes from the powerful backward thrust of the hind paws against the ground. Considerable force has to act through the hind legs, so the articular surfaces of the bones fit closely together and are held in position by a complex system of muscles and ligments. Jumping Dogs Read more […]