Tag Archives: Border Collie

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

The Trachea and Major Bronchi

Cough is the most common clinical sign associated with tracheal and bronchial disease. Following a history and thorough physical examination to rule out infectious tracheobronchitis, thoracic and soft-tissue cervical radiographs may be indicated. Thoracic radiography is perhaps the single most important diagnostic test in the evaluation of the puppy or kitten that presents with cough as its primary complaint. Tracheal hypoplasia, extraluminal compressive diseases, diseases causing tracheal stenosis, intraluminal masses, and tracheal collapse may be apparent radiographically. Tracheoscopy with a small-diameter endoscope (approximately 3.5 to 5 mm in diameter or a rigid arthroscope) is useful in evaluating the trachea when obstructive or mucosal disease is suspected. It is especially useful in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse, tracheal foreign body, tracheal stenosis, parasitic tracheobronchitis, and tracheal osteochondroma. Congenital Disorders PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital respiratory disorder that is characterized by absent or deficient mucociliary clearance (). The ciliary dysfunction reduces mucociliary transport, which frequently leads to persistent or recurrent rhinitis, Read more […]

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Disorders of the perineum and anus

Anatomy and physiology Perineum The perineum is made up of the structures which make up the boundary of the pelvic outlet. It extends externally from the dorsal aspect of the scrotum or vulva to the base of the tail; its lateral margins extend to the skin covering the tubers ischii and superficial gluteal muscles. The deep portion is delineated by the ischial arch ventrally, the third coccygeal vertebra dorsally and, in the dog, by the sacrotuberous ligament laterally. Due to the absence of a sacrotuberous ligament in the cat the lateral margins are less well defined. The perineum essentially surrounds the anal and urogenital canals. Within the perineum the most important structures are those which make up the pelvic diaphragm; namely levator ani and coccygeal muscles. These muscles act as a division between the pelvic canal and the wedge shaped ischiorectal fossa, which is bound laterally by the caudal portion of the superficial gluteal muscle, medially by the external anal sphincter levator ani and coccygeus muscles, and ventrally by the internal obturator muscle (). The muscles of the pelvic diaphragm are crucial in supporting the rectum and act not only as a physical partition but are essential in counteracting Read more […]

Major Issues in Dog Welfare

Dogs are kept in a wide variety of environments, including laboratories and kennel establishments housing large numbers of working dogs for much of their lives; short-term housing in rehoming centres; kennels within owners’ gardens; and within owners’ homes with access to roam freely between multiple rooms. Each environment presents its own challenges. Whilst it is often assumed that home-dwelling dogs experience near optimal conditions, and indeed Shore et al. found that people keeping dogs indoors, compared to in a yard, paid more attention to their social needs, it has also been asserted that modern companion animals experience ‘‘a relatively dull life’’, and it has been shown that owners lack the knowledge necessary to safeguard their dogs’ welfare (PDSA 2011). Recent legislation and social pressure in many cultures has led to dogs being kept predominantly indoors, an environment very different from that in which they were originally domesticated. Below we describe a number of current welfare challenges faced by pet dogs and discuss the extent to which each of the three approaches to welfare discussed above would describe them to be a problem. Since this volume is primarily concerned with cognition Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]


Swimming Swimming is a great way for dogs to get their exercise. It is a low-impact form of exercise that doesn’t tax any joints, but builds muscles. Dogs that are prone to gaining weight can swim to remain in shape and cut pounds from their frames. Good health can be maintained while the dog is having fun. Swimming is also a great way to safely exercise your dog in the summer heat. She can exercise and keep her body temperature down at the same time. Equipment for swimming can be minimal, yet there are certain things to have with you to provide a safe swimming experience for you and your pet. A long leash helps your dog learn to return to your side and gives you some control over where she’s swimming. Wear water shoes of some sort. You should be prepared to go in the water to teach your dog to swim, and you should always be prepared to jump in — even with a seasoned swimmer, just in case something happens. Having a toy to retrieve is helpful once the dog has learned to swim. Not all dogs (even sporting breeds) know how to swim right away, so do not throw your dog into the water in the hopes of his learning quickly. This will only scare him and perhaps cause panic and an accident. Do not make this new learning Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Herding Dogs

Australian Cattle Dogs OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) of the hock Australian Shepherds Hip dysplasia; Dwarfism; Spina bifida Bearded Collies Hip dysplasia Belgian Malinois Hip dysplasia Belgian Sheepdogs Hip dysplasia; Neoplaisa Belgian Tervurens Hip dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Border Collies OCD (osteochondrities dissecans); Hip dysplasia Bouviers des Flandres Elbow dysplasia; Hip dysplasia Briards Thyroid disorders; Hip dysplasia Cardigan Welsh Corgis Medial patella luxation Collies (Rough and Smooth) Dwarfism; Neoplasias German Shepherd Dogs Dwarfism; Panosteitis, shown as limb pain and intermittent lameness between the ages of 6 and 12 monts; Hip dysplasia; UAP (ununited anconeal process); Cartilagenous Exostosis; Pannus; Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias; Thyroid disorders; OCD (osteochondrities dissecans); Degenerative myelopathy causes progressive hind limb paralysis in middle age to older dogs. Old English Sheepdogs Hip dysplasia; Wobblers syndrome Pembroke Welsh Corgis IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Hip dysplasia; Swimmers syndrome Pulik Hip dysplasia Shetland Sheepdogs Hip dysplasia; Dwarfism; Thyroid disorders; Neoplasias; Muscular dystrophy Read more […]

Inherited eye diseases

Some alleles act in such a way as to bring about variable effects, depending on several factors, including the rest of the animal’s genetic make-up. One recessive gene causes the condition known as Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA), seen in sheepdog breeds such as the Rough Collie, Shetland Sheepdog and, to a lesser extent, the Border Collie. Dogs carrying the combination cea cea exhibit the disease, which may vary from total blindness with detached retinas to almost unimpaired vision but with an abnormal eye picture when seen through an ophthalmoscope. The normal dog (CEA CEA) and the carrier (CEA cea) will have correct vision. Another type of inherited disorder is caused by incomplete penetrance, in which a particular gene, usually dominant, fails to express its presence in the phenotype, as in Centralized Progressive Retinal Atrophy (CPRA) in Labradors. This eye disease is thought to be so dominant that the presence of only one allele, CP, will cause impaired vision. In most cases CP CP and CP cp animals are affected and only cp cp animals have unimpaired vision. However in some 20 per cent the CP cp heterozygote appears phenotypically normal, and the gene is therefore said to show 80 per cent penetrance.

How are Dog Shows Organized?

There are several different types of dog show. Besides the various local, regional and national “beauty shows”, there are also special Obedience shows, plus Working Trials and Field Trials for working dogs. Championship shows Chief among the Chamionship shows in Britain is Crufts, established in 1886 by Charles Cruft, a supplier of dog biscuits. The most prestigious dog show in the U.S.A. is New York’s Westminster Dog Show, inaugurated in 1877. Because of the charismatic appeal of these shows, entry has to be restricted to dogs which have won the required certificates at other Championship shows. At a Championship show, classes are organized with the dogs separated into breeds, then further divided into several age and handicap groups such as Puppy, Junior, Novice, Open and Veteran. Dogs and bitches are judged separately in each class. There’s a “Best-of-Breed” class, with a certificate awarded to the winner of the best dog and the best bitch. The best dog and best bitch each receive a Challenge Certificate. In the next round, the Best-of-Breed winners in each group are judged to select the best in each group (Gundogs, Hounds, Working Dogs, Terriers, Toys and Utility). Ultimately, the best of the various groups are Read more […]