Tag Archives: Bloodhound

The Eyelids

Developmental Abnormalities Eyelid Agenesis. Eyelid agenesis is a congenital defect of the eyelid margin resulting in absence of varying segments of the eyelid margin, palpebral conjunctiva, and fornices. The agenesis may be unilateral or bilateral, affecting the kitten more often than the puppy. The lateral one third or two thirds of the upper eyelid margin is most frequently involved. Keratitis and ulceration result from direct contact of the cornea with facial hairs and from exposure secondary to imperfect eyelid closure. Small eyelid defects may be successfully managed with ophthalmic lubricant ointments applied three to four times a day to reduce ocular irritation or by performing an entropion procedure to evert the offending hairs. If one third of the eyelid or more is missing, a pedicle graft from the inferior temporal aspect of the lower eyelid can be transposed to the upper eyelid. Distichiasis. Distichiasis is an extra row of eyelashes (cilia) that protrudes from the orifices of the meibomian glands onto the eyelid margin. The upper, lower, or both eyelids may be involved (). Congenital distichiasis often occurs in the English bulldog, toy poodle, miniature poodle, American cocker spaniel, golden retriever, Read more […]

Degenerative diseases: Breed-specific neuropathy

Inherited and breed-related neuropathies are rare diseases that usually affect young animals and can produce generalized motor, mixed motor and sensory, pure sensory and / or autonomic deficits (Inherited peripheral neuropathies) (). Inherited peripheral neuropathies Disease Breed Dogs Giant axonal neuropathy German Shepherd Dog Globoid cell leucodystrophy West Highland White Terrier; Cairn Terrier; Irish Setter Hypertrophic neuropathy Tibetan Mastiff Polyneuropathy Alaskan Malamute Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy complex Dalmatian; Pyrenean Mountain Dog; Rottweiler Sensory neuropathy Border Collie; English Pointer; Longhaired Dachshund Progressive axonopathy (sensory) Boxer Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy Rottweiler; Great Dane; Chesapeake Bay Retriever; Saint Bernard; Collie; Labrador Retriever; Newfoundland Motor neuron disease Brittany Spaniel; Swedish Lapland Dog; English Pointer; Great Dane / Bloodhound or Saint Bernard cross; German Shepherd Dog; Dobermann Pinscher; Griffon Briquet; Saluki; Rottweiler Motor and mixed sensorimotor neuropathies: This group of diseases includes the motor neuron diseases (in which the motor neurons Read more […]

Eye Related Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Eye Diseases A large number of conditions affect the dog’s eyes and range from retinal changes to problems associated with the structure at the front of the eye. Deeper changes are rarely immediately obvious; the effects are mainly in a degree of vision difficulty, apparent as reduced visual acuity or disturbed vision. Distorted vision presents many difficulties as the dog may see objects in a different place and fail to avoid obstructions. Professional attention is necessary. The front chamber and outer covering of the eye is subject to injury and penetration by foreign bodies. Occasionally there is hemorrhage into the front chamber following an accident, resulting in a ‘curtain’ of blood in front of the lens. Although most cases resolve, urgent attention is needed to prevent blindness. Most eye injuries and infections cause inflammation and discharge, with the eye firmly closed. Veterinary examination is urgent; food should be withheld as the dog will probably have to be anaesthetized before the extent of the damage can be explored. Severe inflammation of the outer eye surface is known as Keratitis and can arise from injury or infectious disease. Occasionally, ulceration follows which Read more […]

Gastric Dilation – Torsion. Jaundice. Poisoning

Disease of Alimentary System Gastric Dilation/Torsion In certain types of dogs gas accumulates in the stomach so that it dilates to such an extent as to become a threat to life. Breeds usually affected by the disease, sometimes known as bloat, are particularly Bloodhounds, Great Danes, Irish Wolfhounds and Irish Setters. Other breeds, such as Basset Hounds and Boxers, are also affected, and it may also occur in Dachshunds and Pekingese. Dogs with gastric dilation usually make unsuccessful attempts to vomit and show an obvious, tight distension of the abdominal wall. If the condition is not resolved, the stomach may twist on its axis (torsion), trapping the gas and cutting off the blood supply to essential organs. A complete twist of the gut (volvulus) is life-threatening and needs urgent veterinary attention. Gastric Dilation is usually related to greedy feeders getting excited at meal times, with a tendency to overeat and to swallow air. Breeds likely to be affected should be fed smaller meals more frequently and outside periods of activity. A food bowl on to a low table is said to reduce the amount of air swallowed during feeding. Jaundice Liver failure or an obstruction in the excretion of bile can be caused by Read more […]

Activities

Swimming Swimming is a great way for dogs to get their exercise. It is a low-impact form of exercise that doesn’t tax any joints, but builds muscles. Dogs that are prone to gaining weight can swim to remain in shape and cut pounds from their frames. Good health can be maintained while the dog is having fun. Swimming is also a great way to safely exercise your dog in the summer heat. She can exercise and keep her body temperature down at the same time. Equipment for swimming can be minimal, yet there are certain things to have with you to provide a safe swimming experience for you and your pet. A long leash helps your dog learn to return to your side and gives you some control over where she’s swimming. Wear water shoes of some sort. You should be prepared to go in the water to teach your dog to swim, and you should always be prepared to jump in — even with a seasoned swimmer, just in case something happens. Having a toy to retrieve is helpful once the dog has learned to swim. Not all dogs (even sporting breeds) know how to swim right away, so do not throw your dog into the water in the hopes of his learning quickly. This will only scare him and perhaps cause panic and an accident. Do not make this new learning Read more […]

Sensory Abilities: Olfaction

The dog’s sense of smell has attracted a great deal of enthusiastic attention from both applied and scientific quarters but has only slowly received appropriate experimental study. Historically, almost supernatural capabilities were attributed to a dog’s nose, often resulting in the promulgation of some rather fantastic and insupportable claims about canine olfactory abilities. In addition, many equally incredible theories have been posited regarding the way in which a dog’s olfactory apparatus works. These theories have ranged from the absurd to the occult. For example, one fanciful account hypothesized that irradiated energy emanating from living cells was absorbed by various materials stepped upon, and then re-emitted and detected by the dog’s nose. Other discarded theories posited the notion that electrical waves or vibrations were responsible for the extraordinary feats of canine olfaction. One speculative adherent of the wave theory actually proposed that a pendulum be employed as an instrument for measuring the dog’s olfactory acuity. Over the years, many important advances have been made in the study of olfaction, largely supplanting theories like the foregoing with more scientifically grounded alternatives. Read more […]

The Dalmatian

The Dalmatian or Coach-Dog. (The Illustrated Book of the Dog (1881) by Vero Shaw, B. A.) In spite of the meagreness, in point of numbers, of the entries in the Dalmatian classes at most shows, few breeds attract more attention, simply we believe on account of the peculiarity of the markings, which are indispensable to success on the bench. It is so seldom that a really well-marked dog is seen following a carriage, that those unacquainted with the few really good ones which appear at shows invariably express great surprise and admiration at the regularity and brilliancy of their colouring. Of the antecedents of the Dalmatian it is extremely hard to speak with certainty, but it appears that the breed has altered but little since it was first illustrated in Bewick’s book on natural history, for in it appears an engraving of a dog who would be able to hold his own in high-class competition in the present day, and whose markings are sufficiently well developed to satisfy the most exacting of judges. Indeed, the almost geometrical exactness with which the spots are represented by Bewick impresses us with the idea that imagination greatly assisted nature in producing what he thought ought to be; his ideal, however exaggerated, Read more […]

Genetics and the Dog: Selection for Particular Traits

There is some evidence that withers height and body weight are quite highly inherited and that they would tend to be related. We have data from GSD’s showing that sixty-day weight in the breed is about 45% heritable and thus vveights at other ages would be connected, while the genes which influence weight will also tend to influence height. In a breed seeking to increase height, progress should be reasonably rapid by the use of the taller animals in the breed. At the same time, body vveight would tend to be increased (whether one wanted this or not) and other related features would happen. Increased size vvould bring with it a more rapid growth rate and possibly increased risk of hip dysplasia. It would probably increase susceptibility of the long bones to diseases like panosteosis and it might lead to reduced hind angulation. There is also some evidence that increases in withers height are associated with greater litter size, at least up to a certain point. In breeds which are physically small, the associated low litter size has both economic and genetic drawbacks but there is minimal scope for increasing skeletal size beyond the odd centimetre or two. In general, most breeders are content to select to remain within Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Hounds

Afghan Hounds Elbow dysplasia; Malformation of articular surfaces of proximal radius and ulna; Thyroid disorders American Foxhounds Spinal osteochondrois (affects the ability to run) Basenjis Hip dysplasia Basset Hounds Vertebral deformity with pressure necrosis results from anomaly of third cervical vertebra; Achondroplasia (foreleg lameness caused by anatomical irregularity; cartilage of growth plate grows in irregular directions and is scant); OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) (shoulder); Osteodystrophy; Radial carpal joint irregularity; Patella luxation, medial or lateral that produces lameness at four to six months of age; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Panostetis Beagles Hip dysplasia; Epiphyseal dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease) Black and Tan Coonhounds Hip dysplasia (high incidence); Polyradiculoneuritis; Coondog paralysis Bloodhounds Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Borzois Thyroid disorders Dachshunds IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Osteoporosis clinically similar to swimmers, with radiographs showing dense bones and abnormal bone resorption; UAP (ununited anconeal process); Patella luxation; Achondroplasia; Thyroid disorder English Foxhounds Osteochondrosis Read more […]

Breeding and selection

Polygenic characters tend to follow a pattern in which most individuals under study fall around the center or mean, with fewer at the two extremes. Taking wither height as an example, there are few really small animals of a particular breed and few really large ones, with most around the middle height. The number of genes which, with environmental influences, control height may he unknown, but selection can still be undertaken; many breeds have been altered or ‘improved’ without breeders knowing the number of genes involved. A breeder seeking to improve or increase a particular trait must first identify those members of the breed which excel in that trait and then mate extreme examples. Progress depends on two features. One, called the selection differential, is the extent to which the selected group (parents) exceeds their population mean; the other, called the heritability, is the extent to which the character under examination is inherited in an additive fashion. If a trait is not highly inherited, even intense selection will give little response; in contrast a highly inherited trait will not be altered if minimal selection is made for it. Most breeds have been altered over the years, some out of all recognition, Read more […]