Tag Archives: Beagle


History and Development Like so much of what is now regarded as English, the ancestors of the Beagle seem to have come to England with William the Conqueror. The Talbot hounds which he brought with him were the progenitors of the Southern hound which, in turn gave rise to the Beagle. Hunting dogs which relied on scent rather than sight were well-known in England as early as the beginning of the 16th century and one of the first references to this breed, by name, appears in the Privy Accounts of Henry VIII where payment is recorded to a Robert Shere, die “Keeper of the Beagles”. The deforestation of the 17th and 18th centuries provided more open country for horse-riding and greatly reduced the number of deer, leaving the (ox and hare as the main objectives for sportsmen on horseback. The second Duke of Buckingham (1687) was one of the first to keep a genuine pack of foxhounds. By the beginning of the 19th century. Beagles were said to exist in several sizes. Reinagle, in the Sportsman’s Cabinet in 1804 says: “They are the smaller of the hound race in this country, are exquisite in the scent of the hare and indefatigably vigilant in their pursuit of her”. He also says “Though wonderfully inferior in point of Read more […]

Basset Hound

History and Development It is exceedingly difficult to pinpoint the exact period when the Basset evolved. Short-legged dogs which could be called “basset-type” were shown on wall paintings in Egyptian tombs around 2,000 B.C., and from that era until the Middle Ages various chroniclers have mentioned low-set, long-bodied dogs. However, one cannot be certain that these were Bassets. The first recorded mention of the word “Basset’ is found in Jacques du Fouilloux’s Venerie de Jacques du Fouilloux published in France in 1585. Therefore it this date is accepted as the beginning of the modern Basset, and if the earlier recordings of low-bodied dogs are dismissed as not relating to true Bassets, then the breed is undoubtedly of ancient origin. Not many breeds have four centuries of authenticated history behind them. Du Fouilloux writes of the breed being employed as badger dogs and of them going to earth in the style of terriers. He draws attention to two types of Basset, the rough-haired variety and the smooth-coated type, and states that they originated in Artois and Flanders. Modern canine historians do not disagree with this opinion and are unanimous in considering the northern French departments as the homeland of Read more […]

The Pancreas

Inflammatory Pancreatic Disease The pancreas is a unique organ possessing both exocrine (digestive) and endocrine (hormonal) functions. Inflammatory pancreatic disease affecting only the exocrine portion is extremely uncommon in young dogs and cats (). Consequently, inflammatory pancreatic disease, that is, acute pancreatitis or relapsing pancreatitis that more commonly affects older dogs and cats, has been rarely identified in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. The likely causes of inflammatory pancreatic disease in the young dog and cat are abdominal trauma and infectious agents. Abdominal trauma may induce pancreatitis in dogs that are traumatized by motor vehicles and in cats that have fallen or jumped from high places (high-rise syndrome) (). In addition, abdominal surgery may result in acute pancreatitis due to traumatic injury to the pancreas (spearing the pancreas with a surgical instrument) or excessive manipulation of die pancreas. Infectious agents can occasionally contribute to inflammatory pancreatic disease. Pancreatic necrosis can be found on postmortem examination of an occasional dog afflicted with canine parvovirus infection (). It is not known whether the canine parvovirus is directly Read more […]

Congenital and Hereditary Disorders of the Kidney

Structural Anomalies of the Kidney RENAL AGENESIS Renal agenesis is the complete absence of one or both kidneys. Bilateral renal agenesis is fatal and is a cause of early death in puppies and kittens (). Unilateral renal agenesis is more frequendy observed in puppies and kittens than is bilateral agenesis (). Unilateral renal agenesis may affect either kidney and is usually accompanied by ipsilateral ureteral agenesis. The etiopathogenesis of renal agenesis in dogs and cats is uncertain. A familial predisposition for renal agenesis in beagles, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers supports a genetic basis for the anomaly (Table 17-1). Unilateral renal agenesis may remain clinically silent, provided the contralateral kidney undergoes sufficient compensatory change to maintain normal hemostasis. Clinical findings may include an inability to palpate both kidneys or to detect a kidney by ultrasonography or contrast urography. Because of close associations in the development of the urogenital system, findings of abnormal or absent vas deferens, epididymal tails, or uterine horns at the time of castration or ovariohysterectomy should arouse suspicion of concurrent unilateral renal agenesis. Because unilateral renal Read more […]

Acquired Disorders of the Urinary Tract

Renal Dysfunction In our experience, acquired disorders are the most common cause of renal dysfunction in puppies and kittens. Causes of acquired renal dysfunction in immature animals are similar to those encountered in adults and may include infectious, inflammatory, toxic, ischemic, or neoplastic disease processes. GLOMERULOPATHIES Like their familial and congenital counterparts, acquired glomerulopathies are characterized by morphologic and/or functional alteration of glomeruli that, if progressive, may induce subsequent changes in renal tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels resulting in chronic generalized renal dysfunction (). Acquired glomerulopathies usually develop secondary to systemic disorders in which the underlying disease processes damage not only the glomeruli but other major organs as well. Acquired glomerulopathies are infrequently encountered in young dogs and cats (). Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory evaluations similar to those described for familial glomerulopathies. Unlike familial disease, however, glomerulopathies acquired secondary to systemic disorders are potentially reversible. Identification and elimination of the primary disease process may halt progression of glomerular Read more […]

Congenital Deafness

Deafness that is present at or soon after birth may have either an acquired or a hereditary etiology and may occasionally occur in any puppy whether pure bred or mixed breed. Acquired deafness may be caused by viral infections, anoxia, or the ototoxic side effects of drugs or other materials. Because dogs and cats are born deaf, deafness in a puppy or kitten is not abnormal up to a certain age. In cats the earliest discriminating hearing tests were performed at the age of 7 days. Cochlear potential measurements from a round-window electrode were found to be conclusive about the presence or absence of hearing in cats over 7 days of age (). In dogs, hearing tests were performed from the age of 4 weeks () by means of cochlear potential measurements from round-window electrodes () or brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) (). Testing the Hearing of Young Puppies In our laboratory, two Irish wolfhound puppies and two beagle puppies were investigated for hearing from the third day after birth. Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAERs) were recorded from surface electrodes (Dantec) on the pinnae and the skin over the parietal bone on the midline. For the recording of air-conducted BAERs, each pup was placed in a Read more […]

The Eye

The Ophthalmic Examination History A complete ophthalmic history is an essential part of every puppy’s or kitten’s examination. Owners may be asked questions regarding the animal’s signalment, history of the presenting complaint(s), and any pertinent medical or ophthalmic diseases in the animal’s family histories. Other historical information that may be included is the animal’s vaccination status, diet, environment, and exposure to other animals. Previous therapy should be identified to prevent repetition of an unsuccessful regimen. Procedure Ophthalmic examination should be performed in a quiet area. Puppies usually require only gentle but firm restraint of the head. Very young puppies cooperate nicely when held in an assistant’s arms. Kittens can also be gently restrained and are less likely to demonstrate the constant ocular motion typical of puppies. Uncooperative puppies or kittens may be placed in a towel or restraint bag. Assessment of ocular abnormalities such as orbital swelling, squinting, or ocular discharge can be done in a well-lighted room, but actual ophthalmoscopic examination should be done with the lights dimmed. A bright source of focal illumination is required; the Finoff transilluminator on Read more […]

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]