Tag Archives: American Staffordshire Terrier

Intention tremors due to cerebellar disorders

Tremors that occur when an animal intends to move in a goal-orientated activity are most often the result of cerebellar disease (). Degenerative diseases Cerebellar cortical degeneration Cerebellar cortical degeneration, also termed cerebellar abiotrophy, is usually an inherited disease in dogs () with few reports in cats. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration refers to degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells, molecular cells and granule cells. Clinical signs: These diseases are recognized syndromes in American Staffordshire Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Kerry Blue Terriers, Gordon Setters, Rough-coated Collies, Border Collies, Brittany Spaniels, Bullmastiffs, Old English Sheepdogs and occur rarely in Samoyeds, Airedales, Finnish Harriers, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Cairn Terriers, Great Danes, Scottish Terriers and others (). Clinical signs usually begin between 3 and 12 months of age. However, a subset of adult onset diseases occur with signs starting from 2-8 years of age in the Brittany Spaniel (), Gordon Setter (), Old English Sheepdog (), American Staffordshire Terrier () and Scottish Terrier (). Other signs of cerebellar disease that accompany cerebellar Read more […]

Muscles

The muscles important to the function of the visual apparatus constitute three groups: the intraocular muscles, the extraocular muscles, and the palpebral muscles. The intraocular muscles are those that lie entirely internal to the sclera and act to regulate pupillary diameter and the shape of the lens. The extraocular muscles insert on the sclera and effect rotation and retraction of the eyeball as a whole. The palpebral muscle group includes a number of muscles of the lids and head that regulate the shape and position of the palpebral fissure. Intraocular The dilator and sphincter muscles of the iris and the ciliary muscles lie entirely within the eyeball. They are composed of smooth muscle fibers. The iris musculature acts reflexly to regulate the amount of light that reaches the retina. The ciliary muscle accomplishes visual accommodation (focusing) by altering the tension of the zonular fibers. These muscles are described in detail under the headings “Iris” and “Ciliary Body,” of which they are integral parts. Extraocular The extraocular muscles, or musculi bulbi, are striated muscles: the dorsal, medial, ventral, and lateral rectus muscles; the dorsal and ventral oblique muscles; and the retractor Read more […]

Activities

Swimming Swimming is a great way for dogs to get their exercise. It is a low-impact form of exercise that doesn’t tax any joints, but builds muscles. Dogs that are prone to gaining weight can swim to remain in shape and cut pounds from their frames. Good health can be maintained while the dog is having fun. Swimming is also a great way to safely exercise your dog in the summer heat. She can exercise and keep her body temperature down at the same time. Equipment for swimming can be minimal, yet there are certain things to have with you to provide a safe swimming experience for you and your pet. A long leash helps your dog learn to return to your side and gives you some control over where she’s swimming. Wear water shoes of some sort. You should be prepared to go in the water to teach your dog to swim, and you should always be prepared to jump in — even with a seasoned swimmer, just in case something happens. Having a toy to retrieve is helpful once the dog has learned to swim. Not all dogs (even sporting breeds) know how to swim right away, so do not throw your dog into the water in the hopes of his learning quickly. This will only scare him and perhaps cause panic and an accident. Do not make this new learning Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Terriers

Airedale Terriers Hip dysplasia; Trembling hindquarters seen after six months of age; Thyroid disorders American Staffordshire Terriers Ruptured curciate ligament (very common) Australian Terriers Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Patella luxation Border Terriers Patella luxation; Hip dysplasia Bull Terriers None recorded in veterinary literature Cairn Terriers Patella luxation; Legg-Calves Perthes disease Dandie Dinmont Terriers IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Achondroplasia; Patella luxation, either medial or lateral; Hip dysplasia; Shoulder luxation; Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias Fox Terriers (Smooth and Wire) Shoulder dislocation; Legg Calves Perthes disease; Myasthenia gravis Irish Terriers Muscular dystrophy Kerry Blue Terriers UAP (ununited anconeal process) Lakeland Terriers UAP (ununited anconeal process); Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Manchester Terriers (Standard and Toy) Legg-Calves Perthes disease Miniature Schnauzers Legg-Calves Perthes disease; Muscular dystrophy Scottish Terriers Dwarfism; Scoottie cramp, characterized by rigidity of limbs with dog recovering in 30 seconds; Thyroid disorders; Elbow dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease) Sealyham Terriers IVD (intervertebrate Read more […]