Tag Archives: Akita

The Globe And Orbit

Congenital Abnormalities Microphthalmos. Failure of the eye to develop to normal size is referred to as microphthalmos. Complete absence of the eye (anophthalmos) is extremely unusual in puppies and kittens. Microphthalmos is characterized by varying degrees of enophthalmos, with or without other ocular defects. Microphthalmos with multiple colobomas is an autosomal recessive trait linked to coat color in the Australian shepherd. In addition to small globes, affected dogs may have persistent pupillary membranes, cataract, equatorial staphylomas, choroidal hypoplasia, retinal dysplasia and detachment, and optic nerve hypoplasia. Vision is frequently impaired. Other breeds in which multiple ocular defects have been associated with coat color include the Great Dane, collie, Shetland sheepdog, and dachshund. Microphthalmos is also associated with inherited congenital cataracts in the miniature schnauzer, Old English sheepdog, Akita, and King Charles Cavalier spaniel. Microphthalmos occurs with retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers, Sealyham terriers, beagles, Labrador retrievers, and Doberman pinschers. Administration of griseofulvin to pregnant cats may produce microphthalmos in their offspring. Atypical Eye Position. Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]

The Retina and Optic Nerve

Tapetal coloration of the fundus of the puppy and kitten is usually gray or blue at 6 to 8 weeks of age, gradually acquiring its adult coloration by 4 to 7 months of age when the tapetum matures. Myelination of the optic disc may also be incomplete in the puppy and kitten, giving the impression of a small, well-defined nerve head that takes on a more fluffy appearance as adult myelination occurs.Both congenital and acquired disorders of the retina and optic nerve are recognized in the young dog and cat. These may be inherited, as with collie eye anomaly, or secondary to postnatal influences, as occurs with canine distemper-induced retinitis. Congenital abnormalities can be diagnosed as early as 6 weeks of age, when the posterior segment is clearly observed. The more common congenital abnormalities of the canine fundus are summarized in Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus. Acquired abnormalities develop with advancing age and in this discussion are limited to those in dogs and cats younger than 6 months of age. Table Congenital Abnormalities of the Canine Fundus (diagnosed as early as 6-8 wk of age). DISORDER BREED CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Collie eye anomaly Collie, Shetland sheepdog, Read more […]

Peripheral vestibular diseases

Anomalous diseases Congenital vestibular disease Congenital vestibular diseases are seen infrequently in dogs and cats but have been reported in Siamese, Burmese and Tonkanese cats, and in Dobermann Pinschers, Cocker Spaniels, German Shepherd Dogs, Akitas, Smooth Fox Terriers and Beagles (). Clinical signs. The onset is usually first noticed between 3 and 12 weeks of age. Head tilt, ataxia and circling may be seen, and the animal may be deaf. Nystagmus is not a characteristic feature. Pafhogenesis. The pathogenesis is not known. One study of Dobermann Pinschers demonstrated noninflammatory cochlear degeneration in affected animals, with progressive loss of the auditory sensory hair cells (), whilst a separate study revealed the presence of lymphocytic labyrinthitis in affected Dobermann Pinscher puppies (). Diagnosis. Diagnosis is by exclusion of other disorders and consideration of signalment and history. Treatment and prognosis. No treatment is available. Vestibular signs may improve over time; this is most likely due to compensation for a static vestibular deficit rather than disease resolution. Deafness, if present, tends to be permanent. Affected animals should not be bred from as the condition is Read more […]

Inflammatory diseases

Infectious meningitis / meningomyelitis Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and meningomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and the meninges) can cause severe spinal pain. Meningomyelitis, by definition, will also cause neurological deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most reliable antemortem diagnostic test available for identifying CNS inflammation; it often reveals an increase in the white blood cell number as well as protein elevations. A complete discussion of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of infectious CNS disease is presented in site. Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis Clinical signs: SRMA, also termed necrotizing vasculitis, juvenile polyarteritis syndrome, corticosteroid-responsive meningitis / meningomyelitis, aseptic suppurative meningitis, panarteritis and pain syndrome, is a non-infectious inflammatory condition reported in Beagles, Bernese Mountain Dogs, Boxers and German Short-Haired Pointers (), and urobably occurs in other breeds. Affected dogs are often young adults (8-18 months : d) but may be of any age, and are usually febrile and hyperaesthetic, with cervical rigidity and anorexia (). Neurological deficits can be seen in the chronic form of this disease. Read more […]

Disorders of eyeball position and movement

As discussed previously, there is an intimate functional association between the innervation to the extraocular muscles and the vestibular system. The extraocular muscles are innervated by cranial nerve III (oculomotor), cranial nerve IV (trochlear) and cranial nerve VI (abducent) (). Any strabismus due to a lesion in one or more of these cranial nerves must be differentiated from lesions affecting the extraocular muscles (including traumatic rupture and extraocular myositis). • Lesions simultaneously affecting CNs III, IV and VI result in external ophthalmoplegia, and internal ophthalmoplegia if the pupillary constrictor (CN III) is affected. • Lesions with only cranial nerve III involvement may present with a ventrolateral strabismus; more rarely lesions may only affect single muscle groups, resulting in a strabismus opposite to the normal function of the denervated muscle. • Lesions affecting the trochlear nerve in isolation are extremely rare but, where they do occur, will result in loss of function of the ipsilateral dorsal oblique muscle (brainstem lesions may result in loss of function, ipsilateral or contralateral). The dorsal oblique muscle functions to rotate the dorsal portion of the globe nasally Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Working Dogs

Akitas Juvenille polyarthrities causing incapacitating pain and fever; Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Thyroid disorders Alaskan Malamutes Hip dysplasia; Chondrodysplasia, a dwarfism associated with anemia that produces stunted growth in the forelegs, lateral deviation of the foot, carpal enlargement, bowing of forelegs, and a sloping topline; Polyneuropathy, an hereditary progressive muscle weakness Bernese Mountain Dogs Hip dysplasia (very high incidence); Elbow dysplasia; Neoplasias Boxers Neoplasias; Interverterbral disk degeneration Cardiomyopathy. Bullmastiffs Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia; Cervical vertebral malformation; UAP (ununited anconeal process) Doberman Pinscher Wobblers syndrome; Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (osteophytes and cysts form in distal metaphyses of ulna and radius); Neoplasias; Elbow dysplasia Read more […]

Anatomy Of The Dog: What is a Breed

A few months ago, the United Kennel Club added nine breeds, to its registry, bringing its total to 160. Last month, the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Kennel Club announced the addition of the American Eskimo to its miscellaneous group, the first step towards official recognition as an AKC breed. The new UKC breeds are Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen, Canaan Dog, English Toy Spaniel, Finnish Spitz, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Manchester Terrier, Polish Owczarek Nizinny, Tibetan Spaniel and Shiba, all but the Nizziny are recognized by the AKC, some of them for many years, and AKC’s newest, the American Eskimo, has been a UKC breed for a long time. Both registries seem to be in race to add new breeds to their lists, a race that some critics say is an effort to increase the treasuries of both organizations. This rush, along with the apparent whimsical assignment of breed status in some cases, an increase in breed-specific laws in the last few years, and the call by animal rights advocates for a ban on breeding pure bred dogs, has caused some to wonder about the definition of breed. So what is a breed? Webster’s Desk Dictionary of the English Language defines a breed as “a homogeneous grouping Read more […]