Tag Archives: Aidi

Chihuahua (Long-coat, Smooth-coat)

History and Development Chihuahuas arc the smallest members of the canine family. Contrary to popular belief, they are not Mexican in origin. They have existed, relatively unchanged, for hundreds of years, in the lands of the Mediterranean. Ten years before Columbus made his first voyage one was featured by Boticelli, in a fresco in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, the only dog to receive such recognition. Many modern, cream-colored Smooth Chihuahuas look remarkably like the dog in that painting. However, the show type specimen of today was developed in the U.S.A. They flourish on the island of Malta, where they are known as pocket-dogs (Kelb Ta But), and in England, well before 1850, British fanciers made a number of semi-successful attempts to establish them. Early English breeders stated that these “Maltese” terriers, as they called them, were used to refine several other small breeds before they submerged. When tourists, soon after 1850, found and purchased specimens from peons in the north Mexican state of Chihuahua, unsuspecting American breeders gave the dog its name and established it as a firm favorite in the U.S.A. They drew up a breed Standard and today it is one of the top popularity breeds, sixth among 116 Read more […]


The lung (pulmo) () is the organ in which oxygen from the atmosphere and carbon dioxide from the blood are exchanged. The lungs serve a passive function in the mechanical act of respiration. The diaphragm, when it contracts, enlarges the pleural cavity by moving caudally. When the intercostal muscles contract and draw the ribs cranially, the size of the thoracic cavity is also increased, and thus air is drawn into the lungs because of the negative pressure that is produced. Aiding in expulsion of the air from the lungs are the abdominal muscles, which contract and force the abdominal viscera against the caudal surface of the diaphragm. The efects of age on lung function and structure were reviewed by Mauderly and Hahn (1982). In general there is considerable fibrosis and loss of function in the lungs of old dogs. Robinson (1982) summarized some functional consequences of species diferences in lung anatomy. There is no explanation for the great variation seen in lung lobation of domestic and wild mammals. The two lungs (pulmo sinister et dexter) possess many features in common. Each has a slightly concave base (basis pulmonis), which lies adjacent to the diaphragm, and an apex (apex pulmonis), which lies in the thoracic Read more […]

Os Penis: Vessels and Nerves

Christensen (1954) investigated the normal blood flow through the penis of the dog and the mechanical factors involved in initiating and maintaining erection. Special attention was given to the morphologic characteristics and function of the arteries and veins of the glans penis. More recent studies by Ninomiya et al. (1989) confirm most of these findings. The latter authors add observations based on corrosion casts and histologic sections to explain the hemodynamics. They found many cushions of epithelioid cells in the arterioles of the erectile bodies, which throttle blood flow into the cavernous spaces when the penis is flaccid, but yield to the pressure of increased flow during erection. Pressure changes in the cavernous spaces appear to be the result of contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle, which compresses the bulb against the pelvic symphysis, and contractions of the external anal sphincter across the surface of the bulb. Aiding tumescence is the slowed egress of blood from the engorged cavernous spaces caused in part by compression of the internal pudendal vein by the contraction of the levator ani, coccygeus, and the internal obturator muscles. The principal source of blood to the penis is the internal Read more […]

The Scoop on Dog Food

^ Knowing how much protein, carbohydrates, and fats your dog needs ^ Making sure that your dog is getting the right amount of vitamins and minerals ^ Getting an inside look at how your dog’s food is made ^ Checking out organic options Dogs are carnivores — meat eaters. Their teeth are shaped for biting, tearing, and grinding flesh and bones, and their intestinal tracts are short, with enzymes that are good for digesting proteins (but not very good at breaking down and absorbing plant material). So it only makes sense that your dog’s diet should be meat based. Dogs are also opportunists, which means they’ll eat whatever comes their way, including the trash in your kitchen and the grass in your yard. They do gain nutritional benefits from vegetables, fruits, and grains, but they need meat in their diets as their main source of nutrition. This post covers the eight building blocks of nutrition. All these building blocks are required in a well-balanced diet, regardless of the dog. But the amounts of these nutritional elements that each dog needs depends on that dog’s unique situation — puppies and adults need different amounts, as do spayed and pregnant females, and active and inactive dogs. Proteins A brief history Read more […]