Tag Archives: Afghan Hound


the commonest endocrine disorder of the dog the acquired naturally occurring condition has not been documented in the cat although the extremely rare congenital form has been described the metabolically active thyroid hormones are L-thyroxine (T4) and L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Aetiology Primary congenital agenesis (rare) non-functional thyroid tumour (rare) lymphocytic thyroiditis; the most important cause (approximately 90%), an autoimmune disorder which results in thyroid destruction idiopathic thyroid necrosis and atrophy may represent the end stage of lymphocytic thyroiditis Secondary Less common than primary1 causes (less than 5%) TSH deficiency leading to inadequate stimulation of the thyroid gland with subsequent reduction in the production of thyroid hormone congenital hypopituitarism (usually in association with GH deficiency) pituitary neoplasia (may present with other signs, e.g. diabetes insipidus) Tertiary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency results in deficiency of TSH and reduction in thyroid hormone production due to hypothalamic lesions — extremely rare other equally rare causes of hypothyroidism include: iodine deficiency defects in thyroid Read more […]

The Lens and Vitreous

The lens develops rapidly in the early stages of embryogenesis, during which time it is nourished by the hyaloid vessel. The fully developed lens is avascular; by the second week of life, no remnants of the hyaloid system should remain. The normal lens often exhibits minor imperfections that can be easily detected with magnification in dogs and cats younger than 1 year. These include prominent anterior and posterior Y sutures and minute granules in its nucleus and cortex. A mosaic of brown pigment spots is occasionally seen on the anterior lens capsule near the center of the pupil, representing remnants of embryonic mesoderm. Disease of the vitreous would be expected to influence the lens or retina because of its attachments at the posterior lens surface and the optic disc. Congenital Abnormalities Congenital lens abnormalities include alterations in size or shape. Congenital absence of the lens (aphakia) is uncommon. In microphakia, the margin of the abnormally small lens along with elongated ciliary processes may be observed after pupillary dilation. Microphakia occurs along with other ocular defects in the Saint Bernard and beagle and in cats. Luxation of the microphakic lens may cause glaucoma. Lenticonus is a Read more […]


Paraparesis is a non-specific term for bilateral motor dysfunction of the pelvic limbs. Paraparesis is a very common presentation in small animal veterinary practice and can be caused by orthopaedic, muscle, neuromuscular junction, nerve and spinal cord dysfunction. More rarely, systemic and metabolic disorders can present as episodic or progressive paraparesis (e.g. cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction, endocrine and electrolyte disturbances) and animals with drug-induced side-effects (e.g. phenobarbital and potassium bromide) may show pelvic limb dysfunction manifested as ataxia. Diseases of the thoracolumbar spinal cord are the most common cause of paraparesis and, as late or misdiagnosis of many of these disorders can have catastrophic consequences for the patient, it is important to fully understand how to evaluate and manage paraparetic animals. Clinical signs Paraparesis, by definition, represents motor deficits in the pelvic limbs. Abnormal gait descriptions include: Ataxia ― loss of proprioception; incoordination Fatigability applies when one or more muscles become weaker with repetitive but normal use and may imply neuromuscular dysfunction Paresis ― reduced voluntary motor function Paralysis Read more […]

Tetraparesis: Degenerative diseases

Breed-specific spinal cord disease These are degenerative CNS diseases that are often inherited. They cause progressive signs and usually involve many areas of the CNS. The most common neurodegenerative disease specific to the spinal cord is degenerative myelopathy of German Shepherd Dogs and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (with sporadic reports in other breeds). As the predominant signs of this disease are paraparesis and ataxia, it will be discussed in site. However, some neurodegenerative diseases initially cause tetraparesis and ataxia. A list of such diseases can be found in Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Inherited diseases that can cause UMN signs. Many of these diseases also affect other areas of the CNS and therefore cause other (e.g. cerebellar) signs. Breed Disease German Shepherd Dog, Pembroke Corgi, others Degenerative myelopathy Rottweiler Leucoencephalomyelopathy Dalmatian, Labrador Retriever Leucodystrophy Miniature Poodle Demyelination Afghan Hound, Kooiker Hound Myelopathy Labrador Retriever Axonopathy Fox Hound, Harrier Hound, Beagle Hound ataxia West Highland White Terrier, Cairn Terrier Globoid cell leucodystrophy Cervical stenotic Read more […]

Eye Related Diseases

Diseases Of Different Organs Eye Diseases A large number of conditions affect the dog’s eyes and range from retinal changes to problems associated with the structure at the front of the eye. Deeper changes are rarely immediately obvious; the effects are mainly in a degree of vision difficulty, apparent as reduced visual acuity or disturbed vision. Distorted vision presents many difficulties as the dog may see objects in a different place and fail to avoid obstructions. Professional attention is necessary. The front chamber and outer covering of the eye is subject to injury and penetration by foreign bodies. Occasionally there is hemorrhage into the front chamber following an accident, resulting in a ‘curtain’ of blood in front of the lens. Although most cases resolve, urgent attention is needed to prevent blindness. Most eye injuries and infections cause inflammation and discharge, with the eye firmly closed. Veterinary examination is urgent; food should be withheld as the dog will probably have to be anaesthetized before the extent of the damage can be explored. Severe inflammation of the outer eye surface is known as Keratitis and can arise from injury or infectious disease. Occasionally, ulceration follows which Read more […]

The faults and defects of the breeds: Hounds

Afghan Hounds Elbow dysplasia; Malformation of articular surfaces of proximal radius and ulna; Thyroid disorders American Foxhounds Spinal osteochondrois (affects the ability to run) Basenjis Hip dysplasia Basset Hounds Vertebral deformity with pressure necrosis results from anomaly of third cervical vertebra; Achondroplasia (foreleg lameness caused by anatomical irregularity; cartilage of growth plate grows in irregular directions and is scant); OCD (osteochondrities dissecans) (shoulder); Osteodystrophy; Radial carpal joint irregularity; Patella luxation, medial or lateral that produces lameness at four to six months of age; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Panostetis Beagles Hip dysplasia; Epiphyseal dysplasia; IVD (intervertebrate disk disease) Black and Tan Coonhounds Hip dysplasia (high incidence); Polyradiculoneuritis; Coondog paralysis Bloodhounds Hip dysplasia; Elbow dysplasia Borzois Thyroid disorders Dachshunds IVD (intervertebrate disk disease); Osteoporosis clinically similar to swimmers, with radiographs showing dense bones and abnormal bone resorption; UAP (ununited anconeal process); Patella luxation; Achondroplasia; Thyroid disorder English Foxhounds Osteochondrosis Read more […]

The World of the Dog Show

The first dog shows took place in the 1830s and 1840s. They were low-key affairs, held in public houses, and probably invented as a result of the ban on dog-fighting and bull-baiting which left dog fanciers with little outlet for their competitive instincts. The idea of shows soon caught on, though, and the first organized dog show was held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England in 1859. Dog shows grew in popularity with the building of the railways, since breeders could travel from show to show. However, problems arose when people in different areas had conflicting ideas about how a breed should look. No single body or group was responsible for dog shows and standards varied tremendously. There was much controversy over standards and a great deal of faking. Clubs were therefore established to reach a consensus over what were and were not desirable characteristics of the various breeds. The Kennel club The kennel club in Britain was founded in 1873 to oversee the showing of dogs. The club registers the standards which describe exactly what the ideals of each breed should be. These standards are set by the individual breed societies but held by the Kennel Club. All pedigree dogs must be registered with the kennel club before Read more […]

Canine Terminology – G

GAIT Manner in which a dog moves, as walking, trotting, pacing or galloping. GALLOP A fast, running gait; canter, normal gallop or the double suspension gallop. GUARD HAIRS The longer hairs on double-coated dogs; stiffer hairs that protect the undercoat. GAY TAIL A tail carried higher than desirable for the breed; usually the tail is held over the back. GAZEHOUND Hounds that hunt game by sight, such as Greyhounds, Whippets, Saluki, Borzoi or Afghan Hounds. GOOSE-RUMP Croup (pelvis) sloping too steeply toward the rear; low tail set. GROUP Dog breeds are divided into six groups to facilitate judging. Read more […]

The Skeletal System: The Skull

There are three basic skull shapes in dogs: 1. Dolichocephalic – Long-nosed breeds like the Rough collie, Afghan Hound, Doberman and  Fox Terrier. 2. Brachycephalic – Short, snub-nosed breeds like the Pug, Bulldog and Pekingese. 3. Mesocephalic –  A group including dogs which fall between the other two extremes. Parts of  the skull The features of the skull tend to vary with the overall shape and type of the skull. The eye: The eye sits in the space called the orbit with in the zygomatic arch. The two zygomatic arches govern the total width of the skull. They vary in shape between the breeds – long-nosed breeds have a fairly straight arch while in short-nosed breeds it is very curved. The jaw:The shape of the jaw varies quite considerably between breeds. The official breeds standards include requirements for the “bite” of each dog. The jaw muscles are very powerful. It is said that a 20 kg mongrel can exert a bite of 165 kg; the pressure of an average human bite is 20-30 kg. The cranium: The upper part of the dog’s skull, it houses the brain and also varies between breeds. In the Chihuahua, a high-domed shape has been specially selected over years of breeding. Unfortunately this has led in certain cases to Read more […]