Diseases that cause paraparesis

The causes of paraparesis are summarized in Causes of thoracolumbar spinal cord and peripheral nerve disease.

Causes of thoracolumbar spinal cord and peripheral nerve disease

Mechanism of disease Specific diseases
Degenerative Calcinosis circumscripta []Degenerative myelopathy []

Dural ossification []

Intervertebral disc disease (Hansen types I and II) []

Mucopolysaccharidosis []

Spinal synovial cyst []

Spondylosis deformans []

Anomalous Dermoid sinus []Osteochondromatosis []

Vertebral and spinal cord anomalies []

Syringohydromyelia []

Metabolic Diabetes mellitus (neuropathy) []
Neoplastic Extradural: metastasis: vertebral tumours (sarcomas, plasma cell tumours): lymphoma []Intradural-extramedullary: meningiomas; nerve sheath tumours; spinal neuroepithelioma (nephroblastoma); metastasis []

Intramedullary: ependymomas; gliomas; metastasis; round cell tumours []

Insulinoma (paraneoplastic neuropathy) []

Nutritional Hypervitaminosis A []
Inflammatory Discospondylitis/osteomyelitis/physitis []Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis []

Infectious meningoencephalomyelitis []

Spinal empyema []

Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis []

Vertebral physitis []

Idiopathic Arachnoid cysts []Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis []
Traumatic Fracture/luxation []Spinal cord contusion []

Traumatic disc herniation []

Toxic Antiepileptic drugs []
Vascular Fibrocartilaginous embolism []Spinal cord/epidural haemorrhage []

Thromboembolic disease []

Paraparesis: Degenerative diseases

Paraparesis: Anomalous diseases

Metabolic diseases

Endocrine neuropathies

Diabetes mellitus can be associated with a peripheral neuropathy (predominantly in cats). This disease is described fully in site, but it is important to note that the sciatic nerves tend to be affected first and most obviously causing pelvic limb weakness and a plantigrade stance. Appearance of signs in the pelvic limbs first is also a feature of hypothyroid and insulinoma paraneoplastic neuropathy in dogs ().

Paraparesis: Neoplastic diseases

Nutritional diseases

Hypervitaminosis A

This is a rare cause of paraparesis in cats and is discussed in site.

Paraparesis: Inflammatory diseases

Paraparesis: Idiopathic diseases

Paraparesis: Traumatic diseases

Toxic diseases

Most toxicities that cause paraparesis do so by having an effect on peripheral nerve function and will often quickly progress to tetraparesis ().

Antiepileptic drugs

High blood levels of antiepileptic drugs, i.e. phenobarbital and potassium bromide either used in isolation or combined, can produce hindlimb ataxia that can progress to tetraparesis. It is therefore recommended that blood levels of these drugs are evaluated in epileptic patients that are receiving treatment and have become paretic or ataxic.

Paraparesis: Vascular diseases