Category Archives: Disorders in Dogs

Fleas in Dogs

Fleas in dogs have been mentioned in 1824 Among the numerous inconveniences to which the canine race are liable, I hardly know one more troublesome to themselves, or vexatious to their owners, than this common one of fleas. It becomes, therefore, a very frequent inquiry — How they can be destroyed, or how they can be prevented from accumulating? — Washing the body well with soap-suds, and directly afterwards carefully combing it with a small-toothed comb, are the most ready means of dislodging these nimble gentry. But it must be remembered, that the previous washing is only to enable the comb more readily to overtake them: the water does not destroy them, for dogs, who swim every day, are still found to have fleas. These insects are very tenacious of life, and soon recover this temporary drowning; the comb, therefore, is principally to be depended on for their caption before they recover. But as washing is not, in many instances, a salutary practice, and as, in many others, it is a very inconvenient one, so it becomes a matter worthy of consideration how to be enabled to destroy them without these means. Sopping the skin with tobacco water has been recommended; but it has only a momentary effect, and it not Read more […]

Diarrhoea in Dogs

Diarrhoea in dogs have been mentioned in 1824 Looseness, or Purging (Diarrhoea). Dogs are very subject, under various circumstances, to diarrhoea. It is seldom that they are affected with the Distemper without having a morbid alvine flux also, and which, when obstinate and violent, is one of the most fatal accompaniments the disease can have. In the distemper, the colour and consistence of the loose stools vary much; sometimes the motions are glairy or mucus-like, often frothy and pale; at others totally black: but, when the purging has lasted some time, they invariably become yellow. Another common cause of purging among dogs arises from worms; in which cases, the stools are less liquid, but more glairy and frothy: the state of the bowels varies also from day to day, being at one time loose, and at another costive. When diarrhoea continues for many days, the rectum becomes inflamed and slightly ulcerated within the fundament, by which a constant irritation and tenesmus are kept up; and the poor animal, feeling as though he wanted to evacuate, is continually trying to bring something away. On observing this, persons are frequently led into error; for, under a supposition that there exists actual costiveness at Read more […]

Distemper in Dogs

Distemper in dogs have been mentioned in 1824 This scourge to the canine race, now so general and common, does not appear to have been known a century ago; and even yet, throughout the European continent, it is described rather as an occasional epidemic which visits the different countries every three or four years, than as a fixed complaint, like the measles or hooping cough in the human (In opposition to this late appearance of the distemper, it has been conjectured that it was not unknown to the antients, and was by them called the Angina, being one of three diseases to which dogs, according to them, were liable; Madness and Podagra forming the otber two. But an attentive examination of the symptoms, as detailed by Aristotle, Aelian, and such other antient authors as have left us their observations on the canine race, will clearly show that the distemper, as it is known among us, was unknown to them. Their angina appears to have been an accidental epidemic, which confined its attacks almost wholly to the throat, producing faucial imposthumes, like strangles in horses, or quinsy in the human; but the grand characteristic, of primary and continued discharge from the nasal mucous membranes, is wholly unnoticed. — Read more […]

Disorders of the Mammary Glands

1) Are bitches with a history of false pregnancy more likely to suffer from pyometra than bitches that never had false pregnancy? The signs of false pregnancy are a consequence of the normal hormonal changes all dogs undergo when they go through heat. Because all dogs go through these changes, whether or not they show signs of false heat, and because it is these hormonal changes that are associated with development of pyometra, dogs with signs of false pregnancy are not more likely to get pyometra than are bitches that never show signs of false pregnancy. In fact, I like a history of false pregnancy because it gives me historical evidence that hormonal changes occurred as expected in that bitch. 2) Will spaying cure false pregnancy? How about having a litter? No. The clinical signs of false pregnancy are due to a lack of progesterone. Removing the ovaries and uterus will not increase progesterone concentrations in the body. Spaying will, however, keep the bitch from ever having false pregnancy again because she will never go through heat again. Having a litter will not decrease signs of false pregnancy after subsequent heat cycles and may increase mammary development and milk production. 3) Is spaying protective Read more […]

Mammary Neoplasia

Development Several types of mammary tumor have been reported in the dog. The two most common are the benign fibroadenoma, or mixed mammary tumor, and the malignant adenocarcinoma. These occur with about equal frequency. The inflammatory carcinoma is a much less common type of tumor; one study reported inflammatory carcinoma to be 8% of mammary tumors reported. A given bitch may have more than one tumor type. In humans, mammary neoplasia is hormone dependent, with estrogen the most common hormone involved in tumor development. In dogs, hormones play a role in mammary tumor development, but the exact pathogenesis is not clear. Bitches spayed before going through heat have a greatly reduced risk of developing mammary neoplasia when aged. The protective effect gradually declines as the bitch is allowed to cycle. Historically it was thought that once a bitch had cycled four times or had reached 2.5 years of age, all protective effect of OHE was gone. Recent work from Belgium suggests that some protective effect remains, even in bitches as old as 9 years. Receptors for estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones have been identified in mammary tumor tissue, suggesting action of those hormones on the neoplastic tissue. Read more […]

Disorders of the Puerperium

1) What does a normal bitch look like in the days following whelping? When should I worry that something’s wrong? Normal bitches pass an odorless, reddish brown to green vulvar discharge for up to 3 weeks after whelping. Body temperature may be slightly elevated for a couple of days but never should be above 102.5° F. The mammary glands should be full but not painful. It is normal to see milk expressed from several openings at the end of every nipple. Abnormalities include creamy, malodorous vulvar discharge; one or more swollen and painful mammary glands; decreased appetite and thirst; disorientation; and neglect of the pups. 2) My bitch finished whelping in the “wee hours” of the morning. Does she need to go into the veterinarian for a “cleanout” shot? Not if she has live pups that are nursing. The nursing pups stimulate frequent release of small amounts of oxytocin, which causes milk letdown and uterine contractions. This is better for the bitch than our giving her one big shot of oxytocin. The puerperal period is that time from whelping to complete involution and repair of the uterus. This period usually lasts about 12 weeks. By the end of the puerperal period, the pups are weaned, the uterus Read more […]

Disorders of eyes and vision

The neuro-ophthalmological examination combines aspects of the neurological examination with components of the ophthalmic assessment and is an important element of both disciplines. Armed with a basic knowledge of the visual pathways and pupillary light reflex, performing the neuro-ophthalmological examination is simple, quick and requires no expensive or specialized equipment. From a neurological viewpoint, the visual system is both fascinating and unique, in that the retina and optic disc are the only components of the nervous system directly visible in the normal patient. Even in the absence of overt neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities, athorough evaluation of the eyes, including afundic examination, should always be performed in the neurological patient, as the underlying cause of neurological disease may be evident (). Conversely, a full neurological examination should be performed in any animal with neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities. Terms that are commonly used in clinical neuro-ophthalmology are defined in Definitions of terms commonly used in clinical neuro-ophthalmology. Definitions of terms commonly used in clinical neuro-ophthalmology Term Definition Anisocoria Pupils of unequal or Read more […]

Decreased vision with pupillary light reflex deficits

Concurrent impaired vision and pupillary light reflex deficits are suggestive of a lesion affecting the proximal portion of the visual pathway, from the retina to just prior to the lateral geniculate nucleus, which is common to both the visual pathways and the pupillary light reflex pathway. Retinal, optic disc and optic nerve lesions Unilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision in the affected eye and loss of the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex on stimulating the affected eye. Both the direct and consensual pupillary light reflex should still be present on stimulating the normal eye. Bilateral lesions will usually result in impaired vision, mydriasis and loss of the pupillary light reflex (both the direct and consensual reflexes) in both eyes. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration: SARD is characterized by an acute loss of vision (although in some cases this may develop over a few days), and occurs occasionally in dogs in the UK (). Affected dogs are typically adult (middle-aged), can be of pedigree or mixed breed descent, and present bilaterally blind with dilated unresponsive pupils. In the acute stages no abnormalities are evident on ophthalmoscopic examination, but overtime (weeks Read more […]

Disorders of pupil size and function

Pupil abnormalities, usually evident as alterations in pupil size, in the absence of visual loss may affect one or both pupils (Causes of alterations in pupil size and function that are not usually associated with loss of vision (with the exception of raised intracranial pressure)). Anisocoria results when only one pupil is affected. In this instance, evaluation of the PLRs is necessary in order to determine which pupil is abnormal. Before any neuro-ophthalmology assessment is performed it is essential first to ascertain whether the pupil abnormalities could be explained by non-neurological abnormalities of the iris (including iris atrophy, iris hypoplasia, uveitis and trauma) or globe (including lens luxation and glaucoma). Painful conditions of the cornea and conjunctiva may also cause miosis. Brief oscillations of pupillary size, referred to as hippus, may occur as a normal feature in response to light exposure. Very exaggerated hippus may be an indication of CNS disease, particularly if it occurs in conjunction with other neuro-ophthalmological abnormalities. Causes of alterations in pupil size and function that are not usually associated with loss of vision (with the exception of raised intracranial pressure). Condition Miosis Read more […]

Disorders of eyeball position and movement

As discussed previously, there is an intimate functional association between the innervation to the extraocular muscles and the vestibular system. The extraocular muscles are innervated by cranial nerve III (oculomotor), cranial nerve IV (trochlear) and cranial nerve VI (abducent) (). Any strabismus due to a lesion in one or more of these cranial nerves must be differentiated from lesions affecting the extraocular muscles (including traumatic rupture and extraocular myositis). • Lesions simultaneously affecting CNs III, IV and VI result in external ophthalmoplegia, and internal ophthalmoplegia if the pupillary constrictor (CN III) is affected. • Lesions with only cranial nerve III involvement may present with a ventrolateral strabismus; more rarely lesions may only affect single muscle groups, resulting in a strabismus opposite to the normal function of the denervated muscle. • Lesions affecting the trochlear nerve in isolation are extremely rare but, where they do occur, will result in loss of function of the ipsilateral dorsal oblique muscle (brainstem lesions may result in loss of function, ipsilateral or contralateral). The dorsal oblique muscle functions to rotate the dorsal portion of the globe nasally Read more […]