Category Archives: Breeding Dogs

Immunisation: Breeding and Lifeline

Canine Parovirus Immunization: Myths And Realities Time and again, questions have often been asked related to immunization of dogs. For example: Are vaccines safe? What are the risks where adverse reactions are known to occur, such as with MLV distemper and canine adenovirus vaccines? How soon do vaccines provide protection when a dog is exposed to virulent virus? How long does immunity last? Does a vaccine protect against actual infection and subsequent transmission of a pathogen, or only against disease? Should vaccines be expected to provide protection under all circumstances of breeding and management, or are other methods of disease control of equal or even greater importance? Distinguishing The Viruses: Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) is a term used to distinguish the highly pathogenic parvovirus from the “minute virus of canines” (CPV-I): CPV-2 is closely related to feline, mink and raccoon parvoviruses, but it is known to infect and cause disease only in members of the dog family. The principal mode of transmission is by fecal-oral spread. Virus is shed in the faeces of infected dogs for about one week, but not longer than two weeks. A carrier state has not been confirmed. CPV-2 is very stable to heat and most Read more […]

Origin & Domestication Of Dog

The Origins Of The Dog The dog is part of a family of similar animals, which includes not just dogs but also wolves, foxes, coyotes, jackals and wild hunting dogs. All these animals have points in common, the most important being their indispensable and highly adaptable teeth. Long before man met up with the dog on a domestic footing, its ancestors were undergoing the process of evolution. Although the exact origins of the domestic dog remain uncertain, this evolution makes a fascinating study and helps us to appreciate the more deeply rooted aspects of anatomy and temperament. Man’s domestication of the dog has produced the incredible variety we see today. The five and a half million dogs kept as pets in Britain are a testimony to the continuing success of the relationship. Where does the dog come from? The dog belongs to a family of dog-like animals called Canidae, which are pack hunters. The domestic dog is known as Canis familiars. Other members of the family are wolves, foxes, coyotes, jackals and wild hunting dogs. Some look like the dog, others are very different. They all have some things in common, long, narrow heads with long jaws and plentiful teeth. The cheek teeth are adapted partly for slicing and partly Read more […]

Breeding: Maternal Instinct strong in Dogs

IT is in defence of those females of the canine race which destroy their young at birth that these lines are written. Infanticide is an abhorrent act, and repels us. So the dumb mother who with apparent savagery destroys her young is condemned for a deliberately foul, unnatural deed. She is spurned and placed beyond the pale, and may be herself destroyed. having provided the conviction that she deserves such a fate. Maternal instinct is too deep-rooted in the dog to transform any bitch into an abhorrent savage.It is as unnatural as for one of the canine race to be instinctively ferocious. Man’s treatment is as responsible for the one as for the other. It is one of two causes that is responsible for a bitch destroying her puppies. One is fear that they are in danger, either of being taken away from her or the feeling that she had done wrong to have them. The other cause is temporary mental derangement, often brought about by poignant pain when delivering her offspring. A wild animal will defend her young with her life, but the wild animal regards man as her most unrelenting enemy. In the eyes of the dog,. however,. man is an aid to whom she render her devotion and affection. The wild untamed mother and the domesticated Read more […]

Breeding: Brucellosis update

“There is no greater tragedy for a dog breeder than to have a bitch abort or a male dog become infertile. Unfortunately, there is a disease of dogs that causes both abortions and sterility. The disease is canine brucellosis“. These are the chilling words that the James A Baker Institute for Animal Health at Cornell University begins its brucellosis information pamphlet with. Brucelia canis is a contagious disease, which is closely related to the Brucelia species that cause undulant fever in people, and reproductive disease in sheep. It is not cross specific that is; cows and sheep do not get canine brucellosis or vice-versa. The canine form was first recognized in 1966, when a Beagle breeder named Ray Miller submitted specimens to Cornell University from which the disease was isolated. While it is a disease of a very complex nature, there are definite symptoms, which may lead you to investigate the possibility of this potentially devastating disease in your kennel. You may suspect brucellosis when your bitches abort at 45 to 50 days, have a history of tailed conceptions exhibit loss of appetite, deliver still-born pups, have swollen lyrnph nodes, are lethargic or show signs of back pain. Apparently healthy bitches Read more […]

Breeding: Canine Artificial Insemination

Artificial Inseminations in dogs The most common reason for breeders to choose artificial insemination (AI) is an inability of the male and female to breed. The most common cause for inability of the male to breed is beeause of inexperience or dominance of the bitch. We have seen many bitches dominate males, except when they have estrus, and the males will refuse to mate. However,sperm from males for breeding can be callected without mounting the female or off another female. In addition, failure to breed may be due to an orthopedic problem such as disc disease, stifle problem. or muscle weakness. Some cases of prostatic disease may also cause inability of the male to mount a bitch in estrus. Artificial insemination may also be chosen because of major size differences between the mates. The most common reason in the female is objection to the male or the presence of a vaginal structure which impedes intromission by the male and causes pain during breeding. AI can also be used in cases where bitches are suspected to ovulate before standing heat or have very short heats. Less commonly, medical reasons account for the use of AI. Some owners wish to avoid any veneral contact between male and. female. Inseminating semen Read more […]

The importance and development of the Prepotent Sire

Every animal breeder knows the importance to breed improvement of a good sire who “throws himself” to a great extent. While a dam having this quality is valuable also, such a sire may have a much more far-reaching effect upon the strain and the breed as a whole, since he can produce a considerably larger number of offspring. When a stud dog stamps his likeness upon his offspring to a marked degree and passes on certain of his traits to an especially large number of his get or produces puppies that resemble each other more closely than usual, he is said to be prepotent. It must be remembered, however, that while an animal may be prepotent for one or more characteristics, this does not mean that he will also be prepotent for most or all other characteristics as well, Actually, propotency is not a property of an individual animal as a whole, but belongs to a few characteristics that are parent of the hereditary make up of.the individual. (Wentworth, “The Journal of Here-dity” 1915.) There are three major questions with regard to propotency that are of interest to the dog breeder. They are as follows: 1) What is the genetic basis of propotency? 2) How can prepotency be measured? 3) How can prepotent animals be produced Read more […]

Should you breed from a bitch with a bad fault?

I have received a letter from a breeder of considerable experience who seeks advice on whether or not to breed from an outstandingly good bitch which has a bad fault, and if she is to be bred from, how best to set about eliminating that fault from her direct progeny and future generations descended from her. This is a pretty tough assignment. Much depends on the nature of the fault, on how bad it is. If it is a deleterious matter such as luxating patellas, in growing eyelids, deafness of some physical deformity that adversely affects the animal’s soundness, then my advice would be not to breed from the bitch, however good she otherwise might be. No show ring honours or the feeling of achievement can be weighed against the damage breeding from such an animal could inflict on its breed. But if the fault is less serious, a poor or incorrrect colour, mismarking, the wrong coat texture, poorly set ears or tail, wrong coloured eyes, a slightly incorect mouth, a poor or incorrect colour, mismarking, the wrong coat texture, poorly set ears or tail, wrong coloured eyes, a slightly incorrect mouth, a poor front or other structural fault, or poor movement, then there is a good chance of improving matters, depending on the degree Read more […]

Breeding: Rate of Growth of the Fetus

The Rate of Growth of the Fetus: At 10 days the ova are approximately 1/12 to 1/20 inch long. At 3-4 weeks old they are approximately 1 inch in length. At 6 weeks old they are approximately 3 1/2 inches long. At 7-8 weeks old they are approximately 5 inches long. At the 9th week they are 6-8 inches long. The stages of developement are intersting as well: At 10 days the fertilized ova have reached the uterus. At 10-21 days traces of the fetus appear, and traces of head, body, and limbs can be     discerned. At 3-4 weeks the first indications of claws can be seen. At the 5th week the stomach is well defined. At 6 weeks large hairs appears on lips,     eyelids, etc. At 7-8 weeks the eyelashes have appeared, and hair is beginning to appear at the tip of the tail,     head and extremities. By the 9th week the puppy is getting fully covered with hair and ready for its birth. The average bitch carries her litter for from 58 to 63 days, although it has been known for puppies to have been carried 70 days. Before 58 days the puppies are unlikely to be alive. Milk should be a part of the bitch’s diet and, if she likes it, occasionally fish and an egg. A varied diet at this time helps to provide all Read more […]

Breeding: The Mechanics of Whelping

Of all the problems likely to affect dog breeders – and there are many – none is of greater complexity or importance than the combined pregnancy/wheping syndrome. Veterinary Surgeons and experienced “old hand” dog fanciers not infrequently receive frantic telephone calls from distressed novices (and, on occasions, not-so-novices) at all hours of the day and night requesting help and/or advice during a bitch’s pregnancy and, more especially still, at the time of whelping or parturition, the clinical designation. Gestation – The Early Signs Although 63 days (or 9 weeks) is generally considered to be the accepted pregnancy duration in the canine species, spans of from 58 – 66 days are indeed quite typical. Multiple matings, at times extending over a 3 – 5 day period, may add to further confusion. Pregnancy (usually 63 days, or 9 weeks), is generally calculated to have started with the first sevice, regardless of how many matings follow. Hence, parturition 58 days thereafter cannot be considered premature. On the other hand, a gestation period of 66 days following another, final, service some 3 – 4 days later also falls within the realm of normality. Taken together such circumstances, of course, add up to a possible pregnancy Read more […]

Spaying : Should Have Had Her Spayed!

Owning a dog is a huge responsibility. Basic care and maintenance are sometimes equivalent to a full time job, so if you consider the decision to breed your female and raise a litter, you’ll really have your hands full! For some Gundog owners the decision not to breed their female dog is simple and decisive… and the young dog has surgery before her first heat cycle. But for others the finality of having their female “fixed” is just too uncomfortable. What if she turns out to be that once-in-a-lifetime super dog and everyone who sees her in the field wants a pup at a “name-your-price” fee? Lots of questions, lots of “what ifs”, and lots of advice from other dog owners…. let’s take a few minutes and make some spaying facts clear; any decision is made more convincingly if at first we get the data right. To spay your female dog is to remove both ovaries and the uterus; the medical term is ovario-hysterectomy. (There is no such thing as SPADE or SPADED, the correct terms are SPAY or SPAYED). It is major intra-abdominal surgery performed under general anesthesia. If it isn’t done precisely and in a sterile environment the outcome can he disastrous. During my career I’ve never considered any spay “routine”; every one is Read more […]