Canine Terminology – I J K L

INCISORS Front teeth between canines; six front teeth in each jaw between the fangs (canines).
JAWS The jaw bones carry the teeth; upper and lower jaws border the mouth.
JOWLS Lips and flesh of the jaw.
JUDGE At a dog show, one appointed to classify dogs in order of merit; one who gives a judgment on dogs.
KNEE The stifle joint (not pastern joint on front leg).
KNEE JOINT Stifle joint in rear leg.
KNUCKLING OVER Pastern joint bent forward; instead of being vertical the front leg has a forward bend at the pastern joint.
LATERAL DISPLACEMENT Lateral instability; the force that causes side away in a pacing dog (to a lesser degree in the trotting dog).
LAYBACK There are two distinct meanings of ‘layback’. The first and most common is to describe ‘shoulder slope’ of the scapula from the point of shoulder to the withers. Some prefer to always refer to this as the ‘slope of shoulder’ and reserve ‘layback’ for convergence of the scapulae over the ribs towards the withers, i.e. the slope as seen from the front of the dog rather than the side.
LEATHER The leather of a hound’s ear; the soft portion of an ear; the flap of an ear.
LEGGY Legs too long for the dog.
LEVEL BACK Back level (loin may be arched and the back level if the Standard of the breed describes the ‘back’ as being that portion of the spine to which the ribs are attached).
LEVEL GAIT The dog moves without rise or fall of the withers; a good German Shepherd trot.
LIPPY Lips that do not fit tightly or which are thick and full.
LIVER A coat colour of deep reddish brown often associated with yellow eyes.
LOADED SHOULDERS Over-development of muscles loaded under the shoulder blade (causes the dog to be out at the elbow).
LOIN Area between the last rib and thigh; area thinly covered with skin and muscle between floating rib and croup.
LOOSE SHOULDERS Shoulder muscles not tight; the dog may paddle because of loose shoulders.
LOWER THIGH Lower portion of thigh; second thigh; from the stifle to the hock.