PomeranianHistory and Development

The Pomeranian is a breed of dog which can claim great antiquity. Throughout history it has been used for many purposes, but the type has remained unchanged. Depicted in many relics of the Roman era, the essential points of shape of head, carriage of ear and plume, body and coat differ but slightly from today.

There seems little doubt that the modern Pomeranian is of central European origin and that a few of the early specimens brought into England came from Pomerania, Germany, and for tins reason were given the name Pomeranian.

Although there were several imported into Britain from time to time, the breed made little impression until the year 1870.

These early imports were large dogs of up to 30 lbs, in weight but the size was rapidly reduced, until in 1896 Pom classes at shows were divided by weight, 8 lbs, and over and under 8 lbs. In 1915, the Kennel Club withdrew Challenge Certificates for the overweights; that is, dogs over 8 lbs., and today the most popular size is 3½ to 5½ lbs.

The whites were the first to be exhibited with success, and it was not until 1890 that blacks were exhibited. The progress of the breed was at first slow. However, in 1891 the first meeting of the Pomeranian Club was held at Cruft’s Show where Mr. Thco Marples was made Hon. Secretary and Miss Hamilton was the President. This same year, the breed was given a boost when Queen Victoria exhibited a dog known as Windsor Marco in the April show of the Kennel Club. From then on progress was steady, until in the Kennel Club Show in October 1905, 125 Poms were exhibited in the 30 classes provided.

In May 1907, the Pomeranian Club held a breed show and has held them annually since, except for the war years. Although the breed lost some of its popularity as a household pet, it has always had its staunch supporters who have kept it prominent in the show ring, and in recent years its popularity is being regained. At the 1970 Pomeranian Club Championship Show there was a post war record of 84 dogs making 211 entries. Pomeranians were established in America by importations from Great Britain and even in recent years many fine Specimens have crossed the Atlantic. There can be little doubt that of these, American Ch. Sealand Moneybox (bred by Miss I Henshaw) has had the most lasting effect in the number of champions which are descended from him.

Pomeranian: Color

According to the Standard, the following colors are permissible and recognized: black, chocolate, orange, cream, orange shaded sable, wolf shaded sable, beaver, blue. In Great Britain today the chocolate, beaver, blue, white and particolor seem to have disappeared, certainly from the show ring, although in other countries many of these are still retained. The orange shaded sable Ch. Dragon Fly and the brilliant orange Ch. Mars set a fashion for these colors which has remained to this day. This may be one of the reasons for the lack of interest in the less frequent colors.

Pomeranian: Care

Given the freedom of the garden, a Pomeranian will take all the exercise it needs. Daily grooming is desirable to keep the coat and skin in a healthy condition. A good quality stiff bristle brush will give the best results. The coat should be well damped with cold water then the moisture rubbed in with finger tips and finished off by rubbing with a towel.

Working from the head, the coat should be parted and brushed forward from roots to tips. Another parting should then be made and the process repeated until every inch of the dog has been groomed. It this brushing is carried out correctly, there should be little use for a comb unless it is to remove matted or loose hair. The art of trimming is not easy to describe. The novice would be well advised to seek the help of someone of experience to give him a demonstration and then to practice on the dog at home.

Pomeranian: Character

The Pomeranian is gay, active, amusing and capable of great devotion to its owner. It is a sporty little animal and a tireless companion it its owner wishes, but is adaptable to any situation and will live happily in either a one-roomed apartment or a mansion.

The Pomeranian has a bad reputation for yapping. This is a great pity as most Poms can be taught that yapping, without cause, is not allowed. It is also very quick to learn whom it can take advantage of, but is happiest when well trained. It will rarely fight but on being approached by a bigger dog looking for trouble, it will hold its head high, walk on the tips of its toes in order to make itself look as big as possible and give such a look of indignation and rage that the other dog will usually walk away.


In appearance the Pomeranian is a compact, well balanced dog. The tail is perfectly straight, set high and carried well over the back. This, combined with the unique carriage of the head and the dainty, active, buoyant movement, makes the Pom the eye catcher that it is. The head should be foxy in outline and wedge-shaped. The skull should be slightly flat and large in proportion to the muzzle, which should finish rather {me and be free from lippiness. Ears small, not too far apart nor too low down, but carried perfectly erect like those of a fox. Eyes medium in size, slightly oval in shape, dark in color, bright and showing great intelligence. In white, orange, shaded-sable and cream dogs, the runs round the eyes should be black.

The teeth should be level, neither over nor undershot. The neck should be short and well set-in with a well-ribbed body with the barrel well-rounded. The chest must be fairly deep and not too wide but in proportion. The legs should be fine boned, well feathered, perfectly straight at the front and neither cow-hocked nor wide behind, and must be tree in action. The feet should be small and compact in shape.

The coat is profuse and off-standing, the muter-coat sort and fluffy while the top-coat is long, straight and harsh in texture, forming a frill round the neck, shoulders and chest. The hair over the tail, which should be turned over the back and carried flat and straight, should fan over the body. The hair on the head and face should be smooth and short-coated.

Weight is 4 to 4½ lbs. for bitches and 4½ lbs. 5½ for dogs. The A.K.C. Standard says 3 to 7 lbs. for a show specimen, and die ideal size 4 to 5 lbs.

Selections from the book: “The World encyclopedia of Dogs” (1971)